Keywords
Last Name

Irving J. Bigio, PhD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionBoston University School of Medicine
DepartmentMedicine
DivisionGastroenterology
Address44 Cummington St
Boston MA 02215
Phone(617) 358-1987
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0003-4168-1466
 Publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Angelo J, Vargas CR, Lee BT, Bigio IJ, Gioux S. Ultrafast optical property map generation using lookup tables. J Biomed Opt. 2016 Nov 01; 21(11):110501. PMID: 27901550.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Ellis JA, Cooke J, Singh-Moon RP, Wang M, Bruce JN, Emala CW, Bigio IJ, Joshi S. Safety, feasibility, and optimization of intra-arterial mitoxantrone delivery to gliomas. J Neurooncol. 2016 Dec; 130(3):449-454. PMID: 27576697.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Joshi S, Cooke JR, Chan DK, Ellis JA, Hossain SS, Singh-Moon RP, Wang M, Bigio IJ, Bruce JN, Straubinger RM. Liposome size and charge optimization for intraarterial delivery to gliomas. Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2016 Jun; 6(3):225-33. PMID: 27091339.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Badreddine AH, Jordan T, Bigio IJ. Real-time imaging of action potentials in nerves using changes in birefringence. Biomed Opt Express. 2016 May 1; 7(5):1966-73. PMID: 27231635.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Nguyen J, Cooke JR, Ellis JA, Deci M, Emala CW, Bruce JN, Bigio IJ, Straubinger RM, Joshi S. Cationizable lipid micelles as vehicles for intraarterial glioma treatment. J Neurooncol. 2016 May; 128(1):21-8. PMID: 26903015.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Badreddine AH, Schoener KJ, Bigio IJ. Elucidating the temporal dynamics of optical birefringence changes in crustacean nerves. Biomed Opt Express. 2015 Oct 1; 6(10):4165-78. PMID: 26504663.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Joshi S, Singh-Moon RP, Ellis JA, Chaudhuri DB, Wang M, Reif R, Bruce JN, Bigio IJ, Straubinger RM. Cerebral hypoperfusion-assisted intra-arterial deposition of liposomes in normal and glioma-bearing rats. Neurosurgery. 2015 Jan; 76(1):92-100. PMID: 25525695.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Rodriguez-Diaz E, Huang Q, Cerda SR, O'Brien MJ, Bigio IJ, Singh SK. Endoscopic histological assessment of colonic polyps by using elastic scattering spectroscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2015 Mar; 81(3):539-47. PMID: 25257128.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Joshi S, Singh-Moon R, Wang M, Chaudhuri DB, Ellis JA, Bruce JN, Bigio IJ, Straubinger RM. Cationic surface charge enhances early regional deposition of liposomes after intracarotid injection. J Neurooncol. 2014 Dec; 120(3):489-97. PMID: 25195130.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Singh-Moon RP, Roblyer DM, Bigio IJ, Joshi S. Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging. J Biomed Opt. 2014 Sep; 19(9):96003. PMID: 25199058.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Rodriguez-Diaz E, Atkinson C, Jepeal LI, Berg A, Huang CS, Cerda SR, O'Brien MJ, Bigio IJ, Farraye FA, Singh SK. Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014 Jun; 20(6):1029-36. PMID: 24798637.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Joshi S, Singh-Moon RP, Wang M, Chaudhuri DB, Holcomb M, Straubinger NL, Bruce JN, Bigio IJ, Straubinger RM. Transient cerebral hypoperfusion assisted intraarterial cationic liposome delivery to brain tissue. J Neurooncol. 2014 May; 118(1):73-82. PMID: 24664370.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Joshi S, Singh-Moon R, Wang M, Bruce JN, Bigio IJ, Mayevsky A. Real-time hemodynamic response and mitochondrial function changes with intracarotid mannitol injection. Brain Res. 2014 Feb 26; 1549:42-51. PMID: 24440631.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Calabro KW, Bigio IJ. Influence of the phase function in generalized diffuse reflectance models: review of current formalisms and novel observations. J Biomed Opt. 2014; 19(7):75005. PMID: 25027000.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Angelo J, Venugopal V, Fantoni F, Poher V, Bigio IJ, Herve L, Dinten JM, Gioux S. Depth-enhanced fluorescence imaging using masked detection of structured illumination. J Biomed Opt. 2014; 19(11):116008. PMID: 25396713.
    View in: PubMed
  16. A'Amar OM, Liou L, Rodriguez-Diaz E, De las Morenas A, Bigio IJ. Comparison of elastic scattering spectroscopy with histology in ex vivo prostate glands: potential application for optically guided biopsy and directed treatment. Lasers Med Sci. 2013 Sep; 28(5):1323-9. PMID: 23247663.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Bigio IJ. Real-time pathology to guide breast surgery: seeing alone is not believing. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Nov 15; 18(22):6083-5. PMID: 23052257.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Ergin A, Wang M, Zhang J, Bigio I, Joshi S. Noninvasive in vivo optical assessment of blood brain barrier permeability and brain tissue drug deposition in rabbits. J Biomed Opt. 2012 May; 17(5):057008. PMID: 22612147.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Hillman EM, Elson DS, Bigio IJ, Levenson RM, So PT. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery. Biomed Opt Express. 2012 Mar 1; 3(3):531-2. PMID: 22435099.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Curtis A, Calabro K, Galarneau JR, Bigio IJ, Krucker T. Temporal variations of skin pigmentation in C57BL/6 mice affect optical bioluminescence quantitation. Mol Imaging Biol. 2011 Dec; 13(6):1114-23. PMID: 20960234.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Mulvey CS, Zhang K, Bobby Liu WH, Waxman DJ, Bigio IJ. Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 2: early spectral changes during apoptosis are linked to apoptotic volume decrease. J Biomed Opt. 2011 Nov; 16(11):117002. PMID: 22112134.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Mulvey CS, Zhang K, Liu WH, Waxman DJ, Bigio IJ. Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 1: early and late spectral changes are indicative of the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures. J Biomed Opt. 2011 Nov; 16(11):117001. PMID: 22112133.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Ergin A, Wang M, Zhang JY, Bruce JN, Fine RL, Bigio IJ, Joshi S. The feasibility of real-time in vivo optical detection of blood-brain barrier disruption with indocyanine green. J Neurooncol. 2012 Feb; 106(3):551-60. PMID: 21964696.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Joshi S, Reif R, Wang M, Zhang J, Ergin A, Bruce JN, Fine RL, Bigio IJ. Intra-arterial mitoxantrone delivery in rabbits: an optical pharmacokinetic study. Neurosurgery. 2011 Sep; 69(3):706-12; discussion 712. PMID: 21430588.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Jerjes WK, Upile T, Wong BJ, Betz CS, Sterenborg HJ, Witjes MJ, Berg K, van Veen R, Biel MA, El-Naggar AK, Mosse CA, Olivo M, Richards-Kortum R, Robinson DJ, Rosen J, Yodh AG, Kendall C, Ilgner JF, Amelink A, Bagnato V, Barr H, Bolotine L, Bigio I, Chen Z, Choo-Smith LP, D'Cruz AK, Gillenwater A, Leunig A, MacRobert AJ, McKenzie G, Sandison A, Soo KC, Stepp H, Stone N, Svanberg K, Tan IB, Wilson BC, Wolfsen H, Hopper C. The future of medical diagnostics: review paper. Head Neck Oncol. 2011; 3:38. PMID: 21861912.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Rodriguez-Diaz E, Castanon DA, Singh SK, Bigio IJ. Spectral classifier design with ensemble classifiers and misclassification-rejection: application to elastic-scattering spectroscopy for detection of colonic neoplasia. J Biomed Opt. 2011 Jun; 16(6):067009. PMID: 21721830.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Rodriguez-Diaz E, Bigio IJ, Singh SK. INTEGRATED OPTICAL TOOLS FOR MINIMALLY INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT AT GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY. Robot Comput Integr Manuf. 2011 Apr 1; 27(2):249-256. PMID: 21152112.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Upile T, Jerjes WK, Sterenborg HJ, Wong BJ, El-Naggar AK, Ilgner JF, Sandison A, Witjes MJ, Biel MA, van Veen R, Hamdoon Z, Gillenwater A, Mosse CA, Robinson DJ, Betz CS, Stepp H, Bolotine L, McKenzie G, Barr H, Chen Z, Berg K, D'Cruz AK, Sudhoff H, Stone N, Kendall C, Fisher S, MacRobert AJ, Leunig A, Olivo M, Richards-Kortum R, Soo KC, Bagnato V, Choo-Smith LP, Svanberg K, Tan IB, Wilson BC, Wolfsen H, Bigio I, Yodh AG, Hopper C. At the frontiers of surgery: review. Head Neck Oncol. 2011; 3(1):7. PMID: 21306627.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Calabro K, Curtis A, Galarneau JR, Krucker T, Bigio IJ. Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models. J Biomed Opt. 2011 Jan-Feb; 16(1):011008. PMID: 21280895.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Suh H, A'amar O, Rodriguez-Diaz E, Lee S, Bigio I, Rosen JE. Elastic light-scattering spectroscopy for discrimination of benign from malignant disease in thyroid nodules. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 May; 18(5):1300-5. PMID: 21174158.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Joshi S, Ergin A, Wang M, Reif R, Zhang J, Bruce JN, Bigio IJ. Inconsistent blood brain barrier disruption by intraarterial mannitol in rabbits: implications for chemotherapy. J Neurooncol. 2011 Aug; 104(1):11-9. PMID: 21153681.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Keshtgar MR, Chicken DW, Austwick MR, Somasundaram SK, Mosse CA, Zhu Y, Bigio IJ, Bown SG. Optical scanning for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer. Br J Surg. 2010 Aug; 97(8):1232-9. PMID: 20593429.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Austwick MR, Clark B, Mosse CA, Johnson K, Chicken DW, Somasundaram SK, Calabro KW, Zhu Y, Falzon M, Kocjan G, Fearn T, Bown SG, Bigio IJ, Keshtgar MR. Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes. J Biomed Opt. 2010 Jul-Aug; 15(4):047001. PMID: 20799832.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Mulvey CS, Sherwood CA, Bigio IJ. Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative real-time monitoring of apoptosis in living cells. J Biomed Opt. 2009 Nov-Dec; 14(6):064013. PMID: 20059251.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Upile T, Jerjes W, Sterenborg HJ, El-Naggar AK, Sandison A, Witjes MJ, Biel MA, Bigio I, Wong BJ, Gillenwater A, MacRobert AJ, Robinson DJ, Betz CS, Stepp H, Bolotine L, McKenzie G, Mosse CA, Barr H, Chen Z, Berg K, D'Cruz AK, Stone N, Kendall C, Fisher S, Leunig A, Olivo M, Richards-Kortum R, Soo KC, Bagnato V, Choo-Smith LP, Svanberg K, Tan IB, Wilson BC, Wolfsen H, Yodh AG, Hopper C. Head & neck optical diagnostics: vision of the future of surgery. Head Neck Oncol. 2009; 1:25. PMID: 19594907.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Zhu Y, Fearn T, Mackenzie G, Clark B, Dunn JM, Bigio IJ, Bown SG, Lovat LB. Elastic scattering spectroscopy for detection of cancer risk in Barrett's esophagus: experimental and clinical validation of error removal by orthogonal subtraction for increasing accuracy. J Biomed Opt. 2009 Jul-Aug; 14(4):044022. PMID: 19725733.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Georgescu R, Khismatullin D, Holt RG, Castagner JL, A'amar O, Bigio IJ. Design of a system to measure light scattering from individual cells excited by an acoustic wave. Opt Express. 2008 Mar 17; 16(6):3496-503. PMID: 18542442.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Reif R, Amorosino MS, Calabro KW, A'Amar O, Singh SK, Bigio IJ. Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures. J Biomed Opt. 2008 Jan-Feb; 13(1):010502. PMID: 18315347.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Itzkan I, Qiu L, Fang H, Zaman MM, Vitkin E, Ghiran IC, Salahuddin S, Modell M, Andersson C, Kimerer LM, Cipolloni PB, Lim KH, Freedman SD, Bigio I, Sachs BP, Hanlon EB, Perelman LT. Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 30; 104(44):17255-60. PMID: 17956980.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Reif R, A'Amar O, Bigio IJ. Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media. Appl Opt. 2007 Oct 10; 46(29):7317-28. PMID: 17932546.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Bigio IJ, Singh SK. Gastrointestinal cancer surveillance by optical sensing. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Aug 1; 13(15 Pt 1):4315-6. PMID: 17671109.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Reif R, Wang M, Joshi S, A'Amar O, Bigio IJ. Optical method for real-time monitoring of drug concentrations facilitates the development of novel methods for drug delivery to brain tissue. J Biomed Opt. 2007 May-Jun; 12(3):034036. PMID: 17614744.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Fang H, Qiu L, Vitkin E, Zaman MM, Andersson C, Salahuddin S, Kimerer LM, Cipolloni PB, Modell MD, Turner BS, Keates SE, Bigio I, Itzkan I, Freedman SD, Bansil R, Hanlon EB, Perelman LT. Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy. Appl Opt. 2007 Apr 1; 46(10):1760-9. PMID: 17356619.
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  44. Castagner JL, Bigio IJ. Particle sizing with a fast polar nephelometer. Appl Opt. 2007 Feb 1; 46(4):527-32. PMID: 17230246.
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  45. Kelloff GJ, Sullivan DC, Baker H, Clarke LP, Nordstrom R, Tatum JL, Dorfman GS, Jacobs P, Berg CD, Pomper MG, Birrer MJ, Tempero M, Higley HR, Petty BG, Sigman CC, Maley C, Sharma P, Wax A, Ginsberg GG, Dannenberg AJ, Hawk ET, Messing EM, Grossman HB, Harisinghani M, Bigio IJ, Griebel D, Henson DE, Fabian CJ, Ferrara K, Fantini S, Schnall MD, Zujewski JA, Hayes W, Klein EA, DeMarzo A, Ocak I, Ketterling JA, Tempany C, Shtern F, Parnes HL, Gomez J, Srivastava S, Szabo E, Lam S, Seibel EJ, Massion P, McLennan G, Cleary K, Suh R, Burt RW, Pfeiffer RM, Hoffman JM, Roy HK, Wang T, Limburg PJ, El-Deiry WS, Papadimitrakopoulou V, Hittelman WN, MacAulay C, Veltri RW, Solomon D, Jeronimo J, Richards-Kortum R, Johnson KA, Viner JL, Stratton SP, Rajadhyaksha M, Dhawan A. Workshop on imaging science development for cancer prevention and preemption. Cancer Biomark. 2007; 3(1):1-33. PMID: 17655039.
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  46. Sharwani A, Jerjes W, Salih V, Swinson B, Bigio IJ, El-Maaytah M, Hopper C. Assessment of oral premalignancy using elastic scattering spectroscopy. Oral Oncol. 2006 Apr; 42(4):343-9. PMID: 16321565.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Castagner JL, Bigio IJ. Polar nephelometer based on a rotational confocal imaging setup. Appl Opt. 2006 Apr 1; 45(10):2232-9. PMID: 16607989.
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  48. Lovat LB, Johnson K, Mackenzie GD, Clark BR, Novelli MR, Davies S, O'Donovan M, Selvasekar C, Thorpe SM, Pickard D, Fitzgerald R, Fearn T, Bigio I, Bown SG. Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's oesophagus. Gut. 2006 Aug; 55(8):1078-83. PMID: 16469795.
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  49. Dhar A, Johnson KS, Novelli MR, Bown SG, Bigio IJ, Lovat LB, Bloom SL. Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006 Feb; 63(2):257-61. PMID: 16427931.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Johnson KS, Chicken DW, Pickard DC, Lee AC, Briggs G, Falzon M, Bigio IJ, Keshtgar MR, Bown SG. Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast. J Biomed Opt. 2004 Nov-Dec; 9(6):1122-8. PMID: 15568931.
    View in: PubMed
  51. A'Amar OM, Ley RD, Bigio IJ. Comparison between ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared elastic scattering spectroscopy of chemically induced melanomas in an animal model. J Biomed Opt. 2004 Nov-Dec; 9(6):1320-6. PMID: 15568954.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Chicken DW, Johnson KS, Falzon MR, Lee AC, Briggs G, Pickard D, Bigio IJ, Bown SG, Keshtgar MR. Optical biopsy utilising elastic scattering spectroscopy for intra-operative diagnosis of sentinel lymph node metastases. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jul 15; 22(14_suppl):841. PMID: 28014227.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Bigio IJ, Bown SG. Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research. Cancer Biol Ther. 2004 Mar; 3(3):259-67. PMID: 15107613.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Bigio IJ, Bown SG, Briggs G, Kelley C, Lakhani S, Pickard D, Ripley PM, Rose IG, Saunders C. Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results. J Biomed Opt. 2000 Apr; 5(2):221-8. PMID: 10938787.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Bigio IJ, Mourant JR, Los G. Noninvasive, in-situ measurement of drug concentrations in tissue using optical spectroscopy. J Gravit Physiol. 1999 Jul; 6(1):P173-5. PMID: 11543008.
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  56. Mourant JR, Johnson TM, Los G, Bigio IJ. Non-invasive measurement of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements. Phys Med Biol. 1999 May; 44(5):1397-417. PMID: 10368027.
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  57. Hielscher A, Eick A, Mourant J, Shen D, Freyer J, Bigio I. Diffuse backscattering Mueller matricesof highly scattering media. Opt Express. 1997 Dec 22; 1(13):441-53. PMID: 19377568.
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  58. Mourant JR, Bigio IJ, Jack DA, Johnson TM, Miller HD. Measuring absorption coefficients in small volumes of highly scattering media: source-detector separations for which path lengths do not depend on scattering properties. Appl Opt. 1997 Aug 1; 36(22):5655-61. PMID: 18259392.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Bigio IJ, Mourant JR. Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopies for tissue diagnostics: fluorescence spectroscopy and elastic-scattering spectroscopy. Phys Med Biol. 1997 May; 42(5):803-14. PMID: 9172260.
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  60. Mourant JR, Fuselier T, Boyer J, Johnson TM, Bigio IJ. Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms. Appl Opt. 1997 Feb 1; 36(4):949-57. PMID: 18250760.
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  61. Hielscher AH, Mourant JR, Bigio IJ. Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions. Appl Opt. 1997 Jan 1; 36(1):125-35. PMID: 18250653.
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  62. Mourant JR, Bigio IJ, Boyer JD, Johnson TM, Lacey J, Bohorfoush Iii AG, Mellow MH. Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: preliminary testing. J Biomed Opt. 1996 Apr; 1(2):192-9. PMID: 23014685.
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  63. Mourant JR, Boyer J, Hielscher AH, Bigio IJ. Influence of the scattering phase function on light transport measurements in turbid media performed with small source-detector separations. Opt Lett. 1996 Apr 1; 21(7):546-8. PMID: 19865467.
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  64. Mourant JR, Bigio IJ, Boyer J, Conn RL, Johnson T, Shimada T. Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering. Lasers Surg Med. 1995; 17(4):350-7. PMID: 8684237.
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  65. Bigio IJ, Gosnell TR, Mukherjee P, Safer JD. Microwave absorption spectroscopy of DNA. Biopolymers. 1993 Jan; 33(1):147-50. PMID: 8427931.
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  66. Scott AC, Bigio IJ, Johnston CT. Polarons in acetanilide. Phys Rev B Condens Matter. 1989 Jun 15; 39(17):12883-12887. PMID: 9948162.
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  67. Layne SP, Bigio IJ, Scott AC, Lomdahl PS. Transient fluorescence in synchronously dividing Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Nov; 82(22):7599-603. PMID: 3906649.
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  68. Slatkine M, Bigio IJ. Quenching of backward stimulated Raman scattering by broadband forward Raman radiation. Opt Lett. 1984 Jul 1; 9(7):294-6. PMID: 19721575.
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  69. Slatkine M, Bigio IJ, Feldman BJ, Fisher RA. Efficient phase conjugation of an ultraviolet XeF laser beam by stimulated Brillouin scattering. Opt Lett. 1982 Mar 1; 7(3):108-10. PMID: 19710839.
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  70. Bigio IJ, Slatkine M. Transform-limited-bandwidth injection locking of an XeF laser with an Ar-ion laser at 3511 A. Opt Lett. 1982 Jan 1; 7(1):19-21. PMID: 19710809.
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  71. Bigio IJ, Slatkine M. Attainment of the theoretical minimum input power for injection locking of an unstable-resonator KrF laser. Opt Lett. 1981 Jul 1; 6(7):336-8. PMID: 19701424.
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  72. Bigio IJ, Jackson SV, Laird A, Seagrave J. Beam-diagnostics techniques for multiterawatt CO(2) lasers. Appl Opt. 1980 Mar 15; 19(6):914-7. PMID: 20220958.
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  73. Bergmann EE, Bigio IJ, Feldman BJ, Fisher RA. High-efficiency pulsed 10.6-Mu m phase-conjugate reflection via degenerate four-wave mixing. Opt Lett. 1978 Sep 1; 3(3):82. PMID: 19684704.
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  74. Bigio IJ, Finn RS, Ward JF. Electric-field induced harmonic generation as a probe of the focal region of a laser beam. Appl Opt. 1975 Feb 1; 14(2):336-42. PMID: 20134889.
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