Keywords
Last Name

C. Robert Horsburgh Jr, MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionBoston University School of Public Health
DepartmentEpidemiology
Address715 Albany St Talbot Building
Boston MA 02118
Phone(617) 638-7775
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-6838-7895
Other Positions
TitleProfessor of Epidemiology
InstitutionBoston University School of Public Health
DepartmentEpidemiology

TitleProfessor
InstitutionBoston University School of Medicine
DepartmentMedicine
DivisionInfectious Diseases

TitleProfessor
InstitutionBoston University School of Public Health
DepartmentBiostatistics

InstitutionBoston Medical Center

 Research Expertise & Professional Interests
Dr. Horsburgh has 30 years of experience in public health and medicine. He currently holds faculty positions in the Department of Biostatistics and the Department of Medicine. Dr. Horsburgh teaches courses in the Epidemiology of AIDS and the Epidemiology of Tuberculosis. He has focused his research on tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacterial infections and opportunistic infections in AIDS and has served as the National Steering Committee Co-Chairman of the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium and the Tuberculosis Epidemiologic Studies Consortium. He is currently the Chairman of the Steering Committee of RESIST-TB, an international organization dedicated to improving MDR-TB treatment through Clinical Trials.



 Publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. O'Donnell MR, Pillay M, Pillay M, Werner L, Master I, Wolf A, Mathema B, Coovadia YM, Mlisana K, Horsburgh CR, Padayatchi N. Primary Capreomycin Resistance Is Common and Associated With Early Mortality in Patients With Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Aug 15; 69(5):536-43.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Ristola M, Arbeit RD, von Reyn CF, Horsburgh CR. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium from Potable Water in Homes and Institutions of Patients with HIV Infection in Finland and the United States. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:713845.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Anderson JP, Horsburgh CR, Williams PL, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Nunes D, Cotton D, Seage GR. CD4 recovery on antiretroviral therapy is associated with decreased progression to liver disease among hepatitis C virus-infected injecting drug users. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 Jan; 2(1):ofv019.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Horsburgh CR. Overestimation of coprevalent and underestimation of incident tuberculosis in close contacts. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb 15; 191(4):486-7.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Daley CL, Horsburgh CR. Editorial commentary: Treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: it''s worse than we thought! Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Oct 15; 59(8):1064-5.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Assoumou SA, Huang W, Horsburgh CR, Drainoni ML, Linas BP. Relationship between hepatitis C clinical testing site and linkage to care. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2014 Mar; 1(1):ofu009.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Horsburgh CR. Tuberculosis. Eur Respir Rev. 2014 Mar 1; 23(131):36-9.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Linas BP, Barter DM, Leff JA, DiLorenzo M, Schackman BR, Horsburgh CR, Assoumou SA, Salomon JA, Weinstein MC, Kim AY, Freedberg KA. The cost-effectiveness of improved hepatitis C virus therapies in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. AIDS. 2014 Jan 28; 28(3):365-76.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Brigden G, Nyang''wa BT, du Cros P, Varaine F, Hughes J, Rich M, Horsburgh CR, Mitnick CD, Nuermberger E, McIlleron H, Phillips PP, Balasegaram M. Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Bull World Health Organ. 2014 Jan 1; 92(1):68-74.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Shea KM, Kammerer JS, Winston CA, Navin TR, Horsburgh CR. Estimated rate of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States, overall and by population subgroup. Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Jan 15; 179(2):216-25.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Horsburgh CR, Shea KM, Phillips P, Lavalley M. Randomized clinical trials to identify optimal antibiotic treatment duration. Trials. 2013; 14:88.
    View in: PubMed
  12. O'Donnell MR, Padayatchi N, Kvasnovsky C, Werner L, Master I, Horsburgh CR. Treatment outcomes for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Mar; 19(3):416-24.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Hochberg NS, Horsburgh CR. Prevention of tuberculosis in older adults in the United States: obstacles and opportunities. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 May; 56(9):1240-7.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Horsburgh CR, Haxaire-Theeuwes M, Lienhardt C, Wingfield C, McNeeley D, Pyne-Mercier L, Keshavjee S, Varaine F. Compassionate use of and expanded access to new drugs for drug-resistant tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 Feb; 17(2):146-52.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Reed C, Bliss C, Stuver SO, Heeren T, Tumilty S, Horsburgh CR, Samet JH, Cotton DJ. Predictors of active injection drug use in a cohort of patients infected with hepatitis C virus. Am J Public Health. 2013 Jan; 103(1):105-11.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Sterling TR, Villarino ME, Borisov AS, Shang N, Gordin F, Bliven-Sizemore E, Hackman J, Hamilton CD, Menzies D, Kerrigan A, Weis SE, Weiner M, Wing D, Conde MB, Bozeman L, Horsburgh CR, Chaisson RE. Three months of rifapentine and isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection. N Engl J Med. 2011 Dec 8; 365(23):2155-66.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Kabali C, von Reyn CF, Brooks DR, Waddell R, Mtei L, Bakari M, Matee M, Pallangyo K, Arbeit RD, Horsburgh CR. Completion of isoniazid preventive therapy and survival in HIV-infected, TST-positive adults in Tanzania. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011 Nov; 15(11):1515-21, i.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Larson EM, O'Donnell M, Chamblee S, Horsburgh CR, Marsh BJ, Moreland JD, Johnson LS, von Reyn CF. Dual skin tests with Mycobacterium avium sensitin and PPD to detect misdiagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011 Nov; 15(11):1504-9, i.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Leegaard A, Riis A, Kornum JB, Prahl JB, Thomsen VØ, Sørensen HT, Horsburgh CR, Thomsen RW. Diabetes, glycemic control, and risk of tuberculosis: a population-based case-control study. Diabetes Care. 2011 Dec; 34(12):2530-5.
    View in: PubMed
  20. O'Donnell MR, Zelnick J, Werner L, Master I, Loveday M, Horsburgh CR, Padayatchi N. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in women, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Oct; 17(10):1942-5.
    View in: PubMed
  21. O'Donnell MR, Coe A, Bliss C, Lee D, Tumilty S, Skolnik PR, Horsburgh CR, Cotton D, Saukkonen J. Acceptance of interferon-gamma release assay by a high-risk urban cohort. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011 Oct; 15(10):1334-9.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Linas BP, Wong AY, Freedberg KA, Horsburgh CR. Priorities for screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Sep 1; 184(5):590-601.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Baranoski AS, Horsburgh CR, Cupples LA, Aschengrau A, Stier EA. Risk factors for nonadherence with Pap testing in HIV-infected women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011 Nov; 20(11):1635-43.
    View in: PubMed
  24. von Reyn CF, Kimambo S, Mtei L, Arbeit RD, Maro I, Bakari M, Matee M, Lahey T, Adams LV, Black W, Mackenzie T, Lyimo J, Tvaroha S, Waddell R, Kreiswirth B, Horsburgh CR, Pallangyo K. Disseminated tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection: ineffective immunity, polyclonal disease and high mortality. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011 Aug; 15(8):1087-92.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Lahey T, Mitchell BK, Arbeit RD, Sheth S, Matee M, Horsburgh CR, MacKenzie T, Mtei L, Bakari M, Vuola JM, Pallangyo K, von Reyn CF. Polyantigenic interferon-? responses are associated with protection from TB among HIV-infected adults with childhood BCG immunization. PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e22074.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Kabali C, Cheng DM, Brooks DR, Bridden C, Horsburgh CR, Samet JH. Recent cigarette smoking and HIV disease progression: no evidence of an association. AIDS Care. 2011 Aug; 23(8):947-56.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Horsburgh CR, Rubin EJ. Clinical practice. Latent tuberculosis infection in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2011 Apr 14; 364(15):1441-8.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Garg S, Hoenig M, Edwards EM, Bliss C, Heeren T, Tumilty S, Walley AY, Koziel MJ, Skolnik PR, Horsburgh CR, Cotton D. Incidence and predictors of acute kidney injury in an urban cohort of subjects with HIV and hepatitis C virus coinfection. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011 Mar; 25(3):135-41.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Reichmann WM, Gagnon D, Horsburgh CR, Losina E. Evaluation of exposure-specific risks from two independent samples: a simulation study. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2011; 11:1.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Rorie JA, Smith A, Evans T, Horsburgh CR, Brooks DR, Goodman R, Bunte D, Strunin L, de la Rosa D, Geller A. Using resident health advocates to improve public health screening and follow-up among public housing residents, Boston, 2007-2008. Prev Chronic Dis. 2011 Jan; 8(1):A15.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Mitnick C, Horsburgh CR. Encouraging news for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Dec 1; 182(11):1337-8.
    View in: PubMed
  32. O'Donnell MR, Jarand J, Loveday M, Padayatchi N, Zelnick J, Werner L, Naidoo K, Master I, Osburn G, Kvasnovsky C, Shean K, Pai M, Van der Walt M, Horsburgh CR, Dheda K. High incidence of hospital admissions with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis among South African health care workers. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Oct 19; 153(8):516-22.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Lahey T, Sheth S, Matee M, Arbeit R, Horsburgh CR, Mtei L, Mackenzie T, Bakari M, Vuola JM, Pallangyo K, von Reyn CF. Interferon ? responses to mycobacterial antigens protect against subsequent HIV-associated tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15; 202(8):1265-72.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Lahey T, Arbeit RD, Bakari M, Horsburgh CR, Matee M, Waddell R, Mtei L, Vuola JM, Pallangyo K, von Reyn CF. Immunogenicity of a protective whole cell mycobacterial vaccine in HIV-infected adults: a phase III study in Tanzania. Vaccine. 2010 Nov 10; 28(48):7652-8.
    View in: PubMed
  35. O'Donnell MR, Chamblee S, von Reyn CF, Ellerbrock TV, Johnson J, Marsh BJ, Moreland JD, Narita M, Pedrosa M, Johnson LS, Horsburgh CR. Racial disparities in primary and reactivation tuberculosis in a rural community in the southeastern United States. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Jun; 14(6):733-40.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Horsburgh CR, O'Donnell M, Chamblee S, Moreland JL, Johnson J, Marsh BJ, Narita M, Johnson LS, von Reyn CF. Revisiting rates of reactivation tuberculosis: a population-based approach. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Aug 1; 182(3):420-5.
    View in: PubMed
  37. von Reyn CF, Mtei L, Arbeit RD, Waddell R, Cole B, Mackenzie T, Matee M, Bakari M, Tvaroha S, Adams LV, Horsburgh CR, Pallangyo K. Prevention of tuberculosis in Bacille Calmette-Guérin-primed, HIV-infected adults boosted with an inactivated whole-cell mycobacterial vaccine. AIDS. 2010 Mar 13; 24(5):675-85.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Horsburgh CR. Evidence-based prevention of MDR-TB: an intervention whose time has come. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Mar; 14(3):259.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Nunes D, Fleming C, Offner G, Craven D, Fix O, Heeren T, Koziel MJ, Graham C, Tumilty S, Skolnik P, Stuver S, Horsburgh CR, Cotton D. Noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis are highly predictive of liver-related death in a cohort of HCV-infected individuals with and without HIV infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jun; 105(6):1346-53.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Strunin L, Douyon M, Chavez M, Bunte D, Horsburgh CR. The GirlStars program: challenges to recruitment and retention in a physical activity and health education program for adolescent girls living in public housing. Prev Chronic Dis. 2010 Mar; 7(2):A42.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Horsburgh CR, Goldberg S, Bethel J, Chen S, Colson PW, Hirsch-Moverman Y, Hughes S, Shrestha-Kuwahara R, Sterling TR, Wall K, Weinfurter P. Latent TB infection treatment acceptance and completion in the United States and Canada. Chest. 2010 Feb; 137(2):401-9.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Raj A, Reed E, Santana MC, Walley AY, Welles SL, Horsburgh CR, Flores SA, Silverman JG. The associations of binge alcohol use with HIV/STI risk and diagnosis among heterosexual African American men. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Apr 1; 101(1-2):101-6.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Horsburgh CR. Primary transmission of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis among HIV-infected persons: what does the future hold in store? J Infect Dis. 2008 Dec 1; 198(11):1577-8.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Bakari M, Arbeit RD, Mtei L, Lyimo J, Waddell R, Matee M, Cole BF, Tvaroha S, Horsburgh CR, Soini H, Pallangyo K, von Reyn CF. Basis for treatment of tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients in Tanzania: the role of chest x-ray and sputum culture. BMC Infect Dis. 2008; 8:32.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Walley AY, Cheng DM, Libman H, Nunes D, Horsburgh CR, Saitz R, Samet JH. Recent drug use, homelessness and increased short-term mortality in HIV-infected persons with alcohol problems. AIDS. 2008 Jan 30; 22(3):415-20.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Raj A, Reed E, Santana MC, Welles SL, Horsburgh CR, Flores SA, Silverman JG. History of incarceration and gang involvement are associated with recent sexually transmitted disease/HIV diagnosis in African American men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Jan 1; 47(1):131-4.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Reed C, Stuver SO, Tumilty S, Nunes D, Murray JE, Graham CS, James Koziel M, Craven DE, Skolnik PR, Horsburgh CR. Predictors of treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in drug users. Subst Abus. 2008; 29(1):5-15.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Digenis-Bury EC, Brooks DR, Chen L, Ostrem M, Horsburgh CR. Use of a population-based survey to describe the health of Boston public housing residents. Am J Public Health. 2008 Jan; 98(1):85-91.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Patel S, Parsyan AE, Gunn J, Barry MA, Reed C, Sharnprapai S, Horsburgh CR. Risk of progression to active tuberculosis among foreign-born persons with latent tuberculosis. Chest. 2007 Jun; 131(6):1811-6.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Graham CS, Wells A, Edwards EM, Herren T, Tumilty S, Stuver SO, Samet JH, Nunes D, Horsburgh CR, Koziel MJ. Effect of exposure to injection drugs or alcohol on antigen-specific immune responses in HIV and hepatitis C virus coinfection. J Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15; 195(6):847-56.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Matee M, Lahey T, Vuola JM, Mtei L, Cole BF, Bakari M, Arbeit RD, Horsburgh CR, Pallangyo K, von Reyn CF. Baseline mycobacterial immune responses in HIV-infected adults primed with bacille Calmette-Guérin during childhood and entering a tuberculosis booster vaccine trial. J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 1; 195(1):118-23.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Conwell DS, Mosher A, Khan A, Tapy J, Sandman L, Vernon A, Horsburgh CR. Factors associated with loss to follow-up in a large tuberculosis treatment trial (TBTC Study 22). Contemp Clin Trials. 2007 May; 28(3):288-94.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Shieh FK, Snyder G, Horsburgh CR, Bernardo J, Murphy C, Saukkonen JJ. Predicting non-completion of treatment for latent tuberculous infection: a prospective survey. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Sep 15; 174(6):717-21.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Parsyan AE, Saukkonen J, Barry MA, Sharnprapai S, Horsburgh CR. Predictors of failure to complete treatment for latent tuberculosis infection. J Infect. 2007 Mar; 54(3):262-6.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Khan A, Sterling TR, Reves R, Vernon A, Horsburgh CR. Lack of weight gain and relapse risk in a large tuberculosis treatment trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Aug 1; 174(3):344-8.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Reed C, von Reyn CF, Chamblee S, Ellerbrock TV, Johnson JW, Marsh BJ, Johnson LS, Trenschel RJ, Horsburgh CR. Environmental risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium avium complex. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jul 1; 164(1):32-40.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Solages A, Vita JA, Thornton DJ, Murray J, Heeren T, Craven DE, Horsburgh CR. Endothelial function in HIV-infected persons. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 May 1; 42(9):1325-32.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Sterling TR, Bethel J, Goldberg S, Weinfurter P, Yun L, Horsburgh CR. The scope and impact of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States and Canada. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Apr 15; 173(8):927-31.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Nunes D, Fleming C, Offner G, O'Brien M, Tumilty S, Fix O, Heeren T, Koziel M, Graham C, Craven DE, Stuver S, Horsburgh CR. HIV infection does not affect the performance of noninvasive markers of fibrosis for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus-related liver disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Dec 15; 40(5):538-44.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Mtei L, Matee M, Herfort O, Bakari M, Horsburgh CR, Waddell R, Cole BF, Vuola JM, Tvaroha S, Kreiswirth B, Pallangyo K, von Reyn CF. High rates of clinical and subclinical tuberculosis among HIV-infected ambulatory subjects in Tanzania. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 May 15; 40(10):1500-7.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Ellerbrock TV, Chamblee S, Bush TJ, Johnson JW, Marsh BJ, Lowell P, Trenschel RJ, Von Reyn CF, Johnson LS, Horsburgh CR. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in a rural community in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Sep 15; 160(6):582-8.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Horsburgh CR. Priorities for the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2004 May 13; 350(20):2060-7.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Fleming CA, Christiansen D, Nunes D, Heeren T, Thornton D, Horsburgh CR, Koziel MJ, Graham C, Craven DE. Health-related quality of life of patients with HIV disease: impact of hepatitis C coinfection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 15; 38(4):572-8.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Tobin-D'Angelo MJ, Blass MA, del Rio C, Halvosa JS, Blumberg HM, Horsburgh CR. Hospital water as a source of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates in respiratory specimens. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 1; 189(1):98-104.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Stratford D, Chamblee S, Ellerbrock TV, Johnson RJ, Abbott D, Reyn CF, Horsburgh CR. Integration of a participatory research strategy into a rural health survey. J Gen Intern Med. 2003 Jul; 18(7):586-8.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Fisk TL, Hon HM, Lennox JL, Fordham von Reyn C, Horsburgh CR. Detection of latent tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2003 May 2; 17(7):1102-4.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Benator D, Bhattacharya M, Bozeman L, Burman W, Cantazaro A, Chaisson R, Gordin F, Horsburgh CR, Horton J, Khan A, Lahart C, Metchock B, Pachucki C, Stanton L, Vernon A, Villarino ME, Wang YC, Weiner M, Weis S. Rifapentine and isoniazid once a week versus rifampicin and isoniazid twice a week for treatment of drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-negative patients: a randomised clinical trial. Lancet. 2002 Aug 17; 360(9332):528-34.
    View in: PubMed
  68. von Reyn CF, Arbeit RD, Horsburgh CR, Ristola MA, Waddell RD, Tvaroha SM, Samore M, Hirschhorn LR, Lumio J, Lein AD, Grove MR, Tosteson AN. Sources of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in AIDS. J Infect. 2002 Apr; 44(3):166-70.
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  69. Espey DK, Djomand G, Diomande I, Dosso M, Saki MZ, Kanga JM, Spiegel RA, Marston BJ, Gorelkin L, Meyers WM, Portaels F, Deming MS, Horsburgh CR. A pilot study of treatment of Buruli ulcer with rifampin and dapsone. Int J Infect Dis. 2002 Mar; 6(1):60-5.
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  70. Vernon A, Burman W, Horsburgh CR. Another step on the path to better TB therapies. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2002 Jan; 6(1):1-2.
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  71. von Reyn CF, Horsburgh CR, Olivier KN, Barnes PF, Waddell R, Warren C, Tvaroha S, Jaeger AS, Lein AD, Alexander LN, Weber DJ, Tosteson AN. Skin test reactions to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative and Mycobacterium avium sensitin among health care workers and medical students in the United States. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2001 Dec; 5(12):1122-8.
    View in: PubMed
  72. Horsburgh CR, Gettings J, Alexander LN, Lennox JL. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, 1985-2000. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Dec 1; 33(11):1938-43.
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  73. Bruce BB, Blass MA, Blumberg HM, Lennox JL, del Rio C, Horsburgh CR. Risk of Cryptosporidium parvum transmission between hospital roommates. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Oct; 31(4):947-50.
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  74. Horsburgh CR, Feldman S, Ridzon R. Practice guidelines for the treatment of tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Sep; 31(3):633-9.
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  75. Long EG, Ewing EP, Bartlett JH, Horsburgh CR, Birkness KA, Yakrus MA, Newman GW, Quinn FD. Changes in the virulence of Mycobacterium avium after passage through embryonated hens'' eggs. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000 Sep 15; 190(2):267-72.
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  76. Horsburgh CR. A large, simple trial of a tuberculosis vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Jun; 30 Suppl 3:S213-6.
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  77. Horsburgh CR. The global problem of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: the genie is out of the bottle. JAMA. 2000 May 17; 283(19):2575-6.
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  78. Dobos KM, Spotts EA, Marston BJ, Horsburgh CR, King CH. Serologic response to culture filtrate antigens of Mycobacterium ulcerans during Buruli ulcer disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000 Mar-Apr; 6(2):158-64.
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  79. Lein AD, von Reyn CF, Ravn P, Horsburgh CR, Alexander LN, Andersen P. Cellular immune responses to ESAT-6 discriminate between patients with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex and those with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999 Jul; 6(4):606-9.
    View in: PubMed
  80. Cohn DL, Fisher EJ, Peng GT, Hodges JS, Chesnut J, Child CC, Franchino B, Gibert CL, El-Sadr W, Hafner R, Korvick J, Ropka M, Heifets L, Clotfelter J, Munroe D, Horsburgh CR. A prospective randomized trial of four three-drug regimens in the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in AIDS patients: excess mortality associated with high-dose clarithromycin. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Jul; 29(1):125-33.
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  81. Horsburgh CR. The pathophysiology of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1999 May; 179 Suppl 3:S461-5.
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  82. Gordin FM, Sullam PM, Shafran SD, Cohn DL, Wynne B, Paxton L, Perry K, Horsburgh CR. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of rifabutin added to a regimen of clarithromycin and ethambutol for treatment of disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium complex. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 May; 28(5):1080-5.
    View in: PubMed
  83. Horsburgh CR. What it takes to control tuberculosis. Am J Public Health. 1998 Jul; 88(7):1015-6.
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  84. von Reyn CF, Williams DE, Horsburgh CR, Jaeger AS, Marsh BJ, Haslov K, Magnusson M. Dual skin testing with Mycobacterium avium sensitin and purified protein derivative to discriminate pulmonary disease due to M. avium complex from pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 1998 Mar; 177(3):730-6.
    View in: PubMed
  85. Mazurek GH, Chin DP, Hartman S, Reddy V, Horsburgh CR, Green TA, Yajko DM, Hopewell PC, Reingold AL, Crawford JT. Genetic similarity among Mycobacterium avium isolates from blood, stool, and sputum of persons with AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1997 Oct; 176(4):976-83.
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  86. Horsburgh CR, Gordin FM, Schaier S, Silver R. Effect of subspecialty training and experience on agreement with HIV guidelines. J Gen Intern Med. 1997 Aug; 12(8):518-9.
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  87. Gordin FM, Cohn DL, Sullam PM, Schoenfelder JR, Wynne BA, Horsburgh CR. Early manifestations of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease: a prospective evaluation. J Infect Dis. 1997 Jul; 176(1):126-32.
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  88. Horsburgh CR, Schoenfelder JR, Gordin FM, Cohn DL, Sullam PM, Wynne BA. Geographic and seasonal variation in Mycobacterium avium bacteremia among North American patients with AIDS. Am J Med Sci. 1997 Jun; 313(6):341-5.
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  89. Whalen C, Horsburgh CR, Hom D, Lahart C, Simberkoff M, Ellner J. Site of disease and opportunistic infection predict survival in HIV-associated tuberculosis. AIDS. 1997 Mar 15; 11(4):455-60.
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  90. Horsburgh CR, Hanson DL, Jones JL, Thompson SE. Protection from Mycobacterium avium complex disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons with a history of tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 1996 Dec; 174(6):1212-7.
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  91. Long EG, Birkness KA, Newman GW, Quinn FD, Ewing EP, Bartlett JH, King CH, Yakrus MA, Horsburgh CR. Model for pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Oct 25; 797:255-6.
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  92. Horsburgh CR. Advances in the prevention and treatment of Mycobacterium avium disease. N Engl J Med. 1996 Aug 8; 335(6):428-30.
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  93. Horsburgh CR. Tuberculosis without tubercles. Tuber Lung Dis. 1996 Jun; 77(3):197-8.
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  94. Horsburgh CR. Healing by design. N Engl J Med. 1995 Sep 14; 333(11):735-40.
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  95. Ostroff SM, Spiegel RA, Feinberg J, Benson CA, Horsburgh CR. Preventing disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Aug; 21 Suppl 1:S72-6.
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  96. Yajko DM, Chin DP, Gonzalez PC, Nassos PS, Hopewell PC, Reingold AL, Horsburgh CR, Yakrus MA, Ostroff SM, Hadley WK. Mycobacterium avium complex in water, food, and soil samples collected from the environment of HIV-infected individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Jun 1; 9(2):176-82.
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  97. Marston BJ, Diallo MO, Horsburgh CR, Diomande I, Saki MZ, Kanga JM, Patrice G, Lipman HB, Ostroff SM, Good RC. Emergence of Buruli ulcer disease in the Daloa region of Cote d''Ivoire. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995 Mar; 52(3):219-24.
    View in: PubMed
  98. Chin DP, Reingold AL, Horsburgh CR, Yajko DM, Hadley WK, Elkin EP, Stone EN, Simon EM, Gonzalez PC, Ostroff SM, et al. Predicting Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a prospectively validated model. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Oct; 19(4):668-74.
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  99. Horsburgh CR, Metchock B, Gordon SM, Havlik JA, McGowan JE, Thompson SE. Predictors of survival in patients with AIDS and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease. J Infect Dis. 1994 Sep; 170(3):573-7.
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  100. Chin DP, Reingold AL, Stone EN, Vittinghoff E, Horsburgh CR, Simon EM, Yajko DM, Hadley WK, Ostroff SM, Hopewell PC. The impact of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia and its treatment on survival of AIDS patients--a prospective study. J Infect Dis. 1994 Sep; 170(3):578-84.
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  101. Horsburgh CR, Chin DP, Yajko DM, Hopewell PC, Nassos PS, Elkin EP, Hadley WK, Stone EN, Simon EM, Gonzalez P, et al. Environmental risk factors for acquisition of Mycobacterium avium complex in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1994 Aug; 170(2):362-7.
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  102. Chin DP, Hopewell PC, Yajko DM, Vittinghoff E, Horsburgh CR, Hadley WK, Stone EN, Nassos PS, Ostroff SM, Jacobson MA, et al. Mycobacterium avium complex in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and the risk of M. avium complex bacteremia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1994 Feb; 169(2):289-95.
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  103. Gordon SM, Horsburgh CR, Peloquin CA, Havlik JA, Metchock B, Heifets L, McGowan JE, Thompson SE. Low serum levels of oral antimycobacterial agents in patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease. J Infect Dis. 1993 Dec; 168(6):1559-62.
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  104. Havlik JA, Metchock B, Thompson SE, Barrett K, Rimland D, Horsburgh CR. A prospective evaluation of Mycobacterium avium complex colonization of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1993 Oct; 168(4):1045-8.
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  105. Hanson DL, Horsburgh CR, Fann SA, Havlik JA, Thompson SE. Survival prognosis of HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993 Jun; 6(6):624-9.
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  106. Seage GR, Mayer KH, Horsburgh CR. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection from unprotected receptive anal intercourse increases with decline in immunologic status of infected partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Apr 15; 137(8):899-908.
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  107. Horsburgh CR, Caldwell MB, Simonds RJ. Epidemiology of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1993 Mar; 12(3):219-22.
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  108. Goble M, Iseman MD, Madsen LA, Waite D, Ackerson L, Horsburgh CR. Treatment of 171 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. N Engl J Med. 1993 Feb 25; 328(8):527-32.
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  109. Yajko DM, Nassos PS, Sanders CA, Gonzalez PC, Reingold AL, Horsburgh CR, Hopewell PC, Chin DP, Hadley WK. Comparison of four decontamination methods for recovery of Mycobacterium avium complex from stools. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Feb; 31(2):302-6.
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  110. Horsburgh CR, Pozniak A. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in the era of HIV. AIDS. 1993; 7 Suppl 1:S109-14.
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  111. Anderson DJ, O'Brien TR, Politch JA, Martinez A, Seage GR, Padian N, Horsburgh CR, Mayer KH. Effects of disease stage and zidovudine therapy on the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in semen. JAMA. 1992 May 27; 267(20):2769-74.
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  112. Horsburgh CR. Epidemiology of mycobacterial diseases in AIDS. Res Microbiol. 1992 May; 143(4):372-7.
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  113. Horsburgh CR, Metchock BG, McGowan JE, Thompson SE. Clinical implications of recovery of Mycobacterium avium complex from the stool or respiratory tract of HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 1992 May; 6(5):512-4.
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  114. Schwartländer B, Horsburgh CR, Hamouda O, Skarabis H, Koch MA. Changes in the spectrum of AIDS-defining conditions and decrease in CD4+ lymphocyte counts at AIDS manifestation in Germany from 1986 to 1991. AIDS. 1992 Apr; 6(4):413-20.
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  115. Havlik JA, Horsburgh CR, Metchock B, Williams PP, Fann SA, Thompson SE. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection: clinical identification and epidemiologic trends. J Infect Dis. 1992 Mar; 165(3):577-80.
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  116. Seage GR, Mayer KH, Horsburgh CR, Holmberg SD, Moon MW, Lamb GA. The relation between nitrite inhalants, unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Jan 1; 135(1):1-11.
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  117. Horsburgh CR, Havlik JA, Ellis DA, Kennedy E, Fann SA, Dubois RE, Thompson SE. Survival of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection with and without antimycobacterial chemotherapy. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991 Sep; 144(3 Pt 1):557-9.
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  118. Horsburgh CR. Mycobacterium avium complex infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1991 May 9; 324(19):1332-8.
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  119. Horsburgh CR, Ou CY, Jason J, Holmberg SD, Lifson AR, Moore JL, Ward JW, Seage GR, Mayer KH, Evatt BL, et al. Concordance of polymerase chain reaction with human immunodeficiency virus antibody detection. J Infect Dis. 1990 Aug; 162(2):542-5.
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  120. Horsburgh CR, Jarvis JQ, McArther T, Ignacio T, Stock P. Seroconversion to human immunodeficiency virus in prison inmates. Am J Public Health. 1990 Feb; 80(2):209-10.
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  121. Seage GR, Horsburgh CR, Hardy AM, Mayer KH, Barry MA, Groopman JE, Jaffe HW, Lamb GA. Increased suppressor T cells in probable transmitters of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Public Health. 1989 Dec; 79(12):1638-42.
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  122. Horsburgh CR, Ou CY, Jason J, Holmberg SD, Longini IM, Schable C, Mayer KH, Lifson AR, Schochetman G, Ward JW, et al. Duration of human immunodeficiency virus infection before detection of antibody. Lancet. 1989 Sep 16; 2(8664):637-40.
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  123. Holmberg SD, Horsburgh CR, Ward JW, Jaffe HW. Biologic factors in the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis. 1989 Jul; 160(1):116-25.
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  124. Horsburgh CR, Anderson JR, Boyko EJ. Increased incidence of infections in intravenous drug users. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1989 May; 10(5):211-5.
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  125. Rietmeijer CA, Penley KA, Cohn DL, Davidson AJ, Horsburgh CR, Judson FN. Factors influencing the risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus in homosexual men, Denver 1982-1985. Sex Transm Dis. 1989 Apr-Jun; 16(2):95-102.
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  126. Horsburgh CR, Selik RM. The epidemiology of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989 Jan; 139(1):4-7.
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  127. Holmberg SD, Horsburgh CR, Byers RH, Schable CA, Lifson AR, Seage GR, Schoenbaum EE. Errors in reporting seropositivity for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Ann Intern Med. 1988 Oct 15; 109(8):679-80.
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  128. Groopman JE, Caiazzo T, Thomas MA, Ferriani RA, Saltzman S, Moon M, Seage G, Horsburgh CR, Mayer K. Lack of evidence of prolonged human immunodeficiency virus infection before antibody seroconversion. Blood. 1988 Jun; 71(6):1752-4.
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  129. Horsburgh CR, Holmberg SD. The global distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection. Transfusion. 1988 Mar-Apr; 28(2):192-5.
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  130. Rector WG, Govindarajan S, Horsburgh CR, Penley KA, Cohn DL, Judson FN. Hepatic inflammation, hepatitis B replication, and cellular immune function in homosexual males with chronic hepatitis B and antibody to human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Mar; 83(3):262-6.
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  131. Horsburgh CR, Mason UG, Heifets LB, Southwick K, Labrecque J, Iseman MD. Response to therapy of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection correlates with results of in vitro susceptibility testing. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987 Feb; 135(2):418-21.
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  132. Horsburgh CR, Cohn DL. Mycobacterium avium complex and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1986 Dec; 105(6):968-9.
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  133. Farhi DC, Mason UG, Horsburgh CR. Pathologic findings in disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. A report of 11 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1986 Jan; 85(1):67-72.
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  134. Horsburgh CR, Davis KC, Hasiba U, Weiss SH, Goedert JJ, Sarin P, Kirkpatrick CH. Altered immunity in hemophilia correlates with the presence of antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III). J Clin Immunol. 1986 Jan; 6(1):37-42.
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  135. Farhi DC, Mason UG, Horsburgh CR. The bone marrow in disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. Am J Clin Pathol. 1985 Apr; 83(4):463-8.
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  136. Horsburgh CR, Mason UG, Farhi DC, Iseman MD. Disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. A report of 13 cases and a review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 1985 Jan; 64(1):36-48.
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  137. Horsburgh CR, Cannady PB, Kirkpatrick CH. Treatment of fungal infections in the bones and joints with ketoconazole. J Infect Dis. 1983 Jun; 147(6):1064-9.
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