Keywords
Last Name

Cindy Christiansen, PhD

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionBoston University School of Public Health
DepartmentHealth Policy & Management
Address715 Albany St Talbot Building
Boston MA 02118
Phone(617) 414-1396
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-9951-480X
 Awards and Honors

Start-EndDescription
2003American Statistical Association: Fellow
 Research Expertise & Professional Interests
Dr. Christiansen is Associate Professor of Health Policy and Management and affiliate statistician at the Center for Health, Quality Outcomes, and Economic Research (CHQOER), Veterans Affairs in Bedford, Massachusetts. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association (ASA) and has had leadership roles in the International Association for Bayesian Analysis, the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and the Health Policy Statistics Section of the ASA. Her interests include the development and implementation of multi-level and prediction models for health policy applications. Her methodological research has been used to estimate the number of potential organ donors across Organ Procurement Organization regions, to estimate the number of recipients of Ryan White Care Act program services, and to predict the cumulative risk of false-positive mammograms.

 Publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Shwartz M, Peköz EA, Burgess JF, Christiansen CL, Rosen AK, Berlowitz D. A Probability Metric for Identifying High-Performing Facilities: An Application for Pay-for-Performance Programs. Med Care. 2014 Dec; 52(12):1030-6.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Southern WN, Drainoni ML, Smith BD, Koppelman E, McKee MD, Christiansen CL, Gifford AL, Weinbaum CM, Litwin AH. Physician nonadherence with a hepatitis C screening program. Qual Manag Health Care. 2014 Jan-Mar; 23(1):1-9.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Geller AC, Clapp RW, Sober AJ, Gonsalves L, Mueller L, Christiansen CL, Shaikh W, Miller DR. Melanoma epidemic: an analysis of six decades of data from the connecticut tumor registry. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Nov 20; 31(33):4172-8.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Vimalananda VG, Miller DR, Christiansen CL, Wang W, Tremblay P, Fincke BG. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among women veterans at VA medical facilities. J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Jul; 28 Suppl 2:S517-23.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Sullivan JL, Shwartz M, Burgess JF, Peköz EA, Christiansen CL, Gerena-Melia M, Berlowitz D. Person-centered care practices and quality in Department of Veterans Affairs nursing homes: is there a relationship? Med Care. 2013 Feb; 51(2):165-71.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Eisen SV, Schultz MR, Mueller LN, Degenhart C, Clark JA, Resnick SG, Christiansen CL, Armstrong M, Bottonari KA, Rosenheck RA, Sadow D. Outcome of a randomized study of a mental health peer education and support group in the VA. Psychiatr Serv. 2012 Dec; 63(12):1243-6.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Drainoni ML, Litwin AH, Smith BD, Koppelman EA, McKee MD, Christiansen CL, Gifford AL, Weinbaum CM, Southern WN. Effectiveness of a risk screener in identifying hepatitis C virus in a primary care setting. Am J Public Health. 2012 Nov; 102(11):e115-21.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Shwartz M, Peköz EA, Christiansen CL, Burgess JF, Berlowitz D. Shrinkage estimators for a composite measure of quality conceptualized as a formative construct. Health Serv Res. 2013 Feb; 48(1):271-89.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Pentakota SR, Rajan M, Fincke BG, Tseng CL, Miller DR, Christiansen CL, Kerr EA, Pogach LM. Does diabetes care differ by type of chronic comorbidity?: An evaluation of the Piette and Kerr framework. Diabetes Care. 2012 Jun; 35(6):1285-92.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Litwin AH, Smith BD, Drainoni ML, McKee D, Gifford AL, Koppelman E, Christiansen CL, Weinbaum CM, Southern WN. Primary care-based interventions are associated with increases in hepatitis C virus testing for patients at risk. Dig Liver Dis. 2012 Jun; 44(6):497-503.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Vimalananda VG, Miller DR, Palnati M, Christiansen CL, Fincke BG. Gender disparities in lipid-lowering therapy among veterans with diabetes. Womens Health Issues. 2011 Jul-Aug; 21(4 Suppl):S176-81.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Ding YY, Kader B, Christiansen CL, Berlowitz DR. Patient factors associated with transfusion practices in Veterans Affairs intensive care units: implications for further research. J Crit Care. 2011 Aug; 26(4):431.e1-9.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Borzecki AM, Christiansen CL, Chew P, Loveland S, Rosen AK. Comparison of in-hospital versus 30-day mortality assessments for selected medical conditions. Med Care. 2010 Dec; 48(12):1117-21.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Peköz EA, Shwartz M, Christiansen CL, Berlowitz D. Approximate models for aggregate data when individual-level data sets are very large or unavailable. Stat Med. 2010 Sep 20; 29(21):2180-93.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Penrod JD, Deb P, Dellenbaugh C, Burgess JF, Zhu CW, Christiansen CL, Luhrs CA, Cortez T, Livote E, Allen V, Morrison RS. Hospital-based palliative care consultation: effects on hospital cost. J Palliat Med. 2010 Aug; 13(8):973-9.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Borzecki AM, Christiansen CL, Loveland S, Chew P, Rosen AK. Trends in the inpatient quality indicators: the Veterans Health Administration experience. Med Care. 2010 Aug; 48(8):694-702.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Fincke BG, Miller DR, Christiansen CL, Turpin RS. Variation in antibiotic treatment for diabetic patients with serious foot infections: a retrospective observational study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010; 10:193.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Southern WN, Drainoni ML, Smith BD, Christiansen CL, McKee D, Gifford AL, Weinbaum CM, Thompson D, Koppelman E, Maher S, Litwin AH. Hepatitis C testing practices and prevalence in a high-risk urban ambulatory care setting. J Viral Hepat. 2011 Jul; 18(7):474-81.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Rivard PE, Elixhauser A, Christiansen CL. Testing the association between patient safety indicators and hospital structural characteristics in VA and nonfederal hospitals. Med Care Res Rev. 2010 Jun; 67(3):321-41.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Christiansen CL. The Ghost in the Borrowed Story: A Mystery in Twenty Chapters. A Narrative Compass: Stories That Guide Women's Lives. 2009.
    View in: External Website
  21. Romano PS, Mull HJ, Rivard PE, Zhao S, Henderson WG, Loveland S, Tsilimingras D, Christiansen CL, Rosen AK. Validity of selected AHRQ patient safety indicators based on VA National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. Health Serv Res. 2009 Feb; 44(1):182-204.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Carey K, Montez-Rath ME, Rosen AK, Christiansen CL, Loveland S, Ettner SL. Use of VA and Medicare services by dually eligible veterans with psychiatric problems. Health Serv Res. 2008 Aug; 43(4):1164-83.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Rivard PE, Luther SL, Christiansen CL. Using patient safety indicators to estimate the impact of potential adverse events on outcomes. Med Care Res Rev. 2008 Feb; 65(1):67-87.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Rivard PE Christiansen CL Zhao S Elixhauser A. Is There an Association Between Patient Safety Indicators and Hospital Teaching Status?. 2008.
    View in: External Website
  25. Jones JA, Miller DR, Wehler CJ, Rich SE, Krall-Kaye EA, McCoy LC, Christiansen CL, Rothendler JA, Garcia RI. Does periodontal care improve glycemic control? The Department of Veterans Affairs Dental Diabetes Study. J Clin Periodontol. 2007 Jan; 34(1):46-52.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Montez-Rath M, Christiansen CL, Ettner SL, Loveland S, Rosen AK. Performance of statistical models to predict mental health and substance abuse cost. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2006; 6:53.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Jones JA, Miller DR, Wehler CJ, Rich S, Krall E, Christiansen CL, Rothendler JA, Garcia RI. Study design, recruitment, and baseline characteristics: the Department of Veterans Affairs Dental Diabetes Study. J Clin Periodontol. 2007 Jan; 34(1):40-5.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Sloan KL, Montez-Rath ME, Spiro A, Christiansen CL, Loveland S, Shokeen P, Herz L, Eisen S, Breckenridge JN, Rosen AK. Development and validation of a psychiatric case-mix system. Med Care. 2006 Jun; 44(6):568-80.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Frayne SM, Parker VA, Christiansen CL, Loveland S, Seaver MR, Kazis LE, Skinner KM. Health status among 28,000 women veterans. The VA Women's Health Program Evaluation Project. J Gen Intern Med. 2006 Mar; 21 Suppl 3:S40-6.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Rosen AK, Rivard P, Zhao S, Loveland S, Tsilimingras D, Christiansen CL, Elixhauser A, Romano PS. Evaluating the patient safety indicators: how well do they perform on Veterans Health Administration data? Med Care. 2005 Sep; 43(9):873-84.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Christiansen CL (committee member). Committee on the Framework for Evaluating the Safety of Dietary Supplements. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2005.
  32. Rosen AK Christiansen CL Montez ME Loveland S Shokeen P Sloan KL Ettner SL. Evaluating Risk-Adjustment Methodologies for Patients with Mental Health and Substance Abuse Disorders in the Veterans Health Administration. International Journal of HealthCare Technology and Management. 2005; 1/2(7):43-63.
  33. Kollman C, Abella E, Baitty RL, Beatty PG, Chakraborty R, Christiansen CL, Hartzman RJ, Hurley CK, Milford E, Nyman JA, Smith TJ, Switzer GE, Wada RK, Setterholm M. Assessment of optimal size and composition of the U.S. National Registry of hematopoietic stem cell donors. Transplantation. 2004 Jul 15; 78(1):89-95.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Frayne SM, Seaver MR, Loveland S, Christiansen CL, Spiro A, Parker VA, Skinner KM. Burden of medical illness in women with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jun 28; 164(12):1306-12.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Kressin NR, Boehmer U, Berlowitz D, Christiansen CL, Pitman A, Jones JA. Racial variations in dental procedures: the case of root canal therapy versus tooth extraction. Med Care. 2003 Nov; 41(11):1256-61.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Jones JA, Boehmer U, Berlowitz DR, Christiansen CL, Pitman A, Kressin NR. Tooth retention as an indicator of quality dental care: development of a risk adjustment model. Med Care. 2003 Aug; 41(8):937-49.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Ravn P, Thompson DE, Ross PD, Christiansen C. Biochemical markers for prediction of 4-year response in bone mass during bisphosphonate treatment for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone. 2003 Jul; 33(1):150-8.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Rosen AK, Loveland SA, Rakovski CC, Christiansen CL, Berlowitz DR. Do different case-mix measures affect assessments of provider efficiency? Lessons from the Department of Veterans Affairs. J Ambul Care Manage. 2003 Jul-Sep; 26(3):229-42.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Guadagnoli E, Christiansen CL, Beasley CL. Potential organ-donor supply and efficiency of organ procurement organizations. Health Care Financ Rev. 2003; 24(4):101-10.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Elmore JG, Miglioretti DL, Reisch LM, Barton MB, Kreuter W, Christiansen CL, Fletcher SW. Screening mammograms by community radiologists: variability in false-positive rates. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Sep 18; 94(18):1373-80.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Boehmer U, Kressin NR, Berlowitz DR, Christiansen CL, Kazis LE, Jones JA. Self-reported vs administrative race/ethnicity data and study results. Am J Public Health. 2002 Sep; 92(9):1471-2.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Berlowitz DR, Christiansen CL, Brandeis GH, Ash AS, Kader B, Morris JN, Moskowitz MA. Profiling nursing homes using Bayesian hierarchical modeling. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002 Jun; 50(6):1126-30.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Soumerai SB, McLaughlin TJ, Ross-Degnan D, Christiansen CL, Gurwitz JH. Effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction in the elderly: cause for concern in the old-old. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Mar 11; 162(5):561-8.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Selim AJ, Berlowitz DR, Fincke G, Rosen AK, Ren XS, Christiansen CL, Cong Z, Lee A, Kazis L. Risk-adjusted mortality rates as a potential outcome indicator for outpatient quality assessments. Med Care. 2002 Mar; 40(3):237-45.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Yokoe DS, Christiansen CL, Johnson R, Sands KE, Livingston J, Shtatland ES, Platt R. Epidemiology of and surveillance for postpartum infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001 Sep-Oct; 7(5):837-41.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Christiansen CL, Wang F, Barton MB, Kreuter W, Elmore JG, Gelfand AE, Fletcher SW. Predicting the cumulative risk of false-positive mammograms. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Oct 18; 92(20):1657-66.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Purdy S, Plasso A, Finkelstein JA, Fletcher RH, Christiansen CL, Inui TS. Enrollees' perceptions of participating in the education of medical students at an academically affiliated HMO. Acad Med. 2000 Oct; 75(10):1003-9.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Purdy S, Finkelstein JA, Fletcher R, Christiansen C, Inui TS. Patient participation in research in the managed care environment: key perceptions of members in an HMO. J Gen Intern Med. 2000 Jul; 15(7):492-5.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Simon SR, Peters AS, Christiansen CL, Fletcher RH. The effect of medical student teaching on patient satisfaction in a managed care setting. J Gen Intern Med. 2000 Jul; 15(7):457-61.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Burgess JF, Christiansen CL, Michalak SE, Morris CN. Medical profiling: improving standards and risk adjustments using hierarchical models. J Health Econ. 2000 May; 19(3):291-309.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Bauer M, Thabault P, Estok D, Christiansen C, Platt R. Low-dose corticosteroids and avascular necrosis of the hip and knee. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2000 May; 9(3):187-91.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Finkelstein JA, Christiansen CL, Platt R. Fever in pediatric primary care: occurrence, management, and outcomes. Pediatrics. 2000 Jan; 105(1 Pt 3):260-6.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Gelfand AE Ghosh SK Christiansen CL Soumerai SB McLaughlin TJ. Applied Statistics. Proportional Hazards Models: A Latent-risk approach. 2000; (49):385-397.
  54. Gelfand AE Ecker MD Christiansen CL McLaughlin TJ Soumerai SB. Conditional Categorical Response Models with Application to Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction. Applied Statistics. 2000; (49):171-186.
  55. Soumerai SB, McLaughlin TJ, Gurwitz JH, Pearson S, Christiansen CL, Borbas C, Morris N, McLaughlin B, Gao X, Ross-Degnan D. Timeliness and quality of care for elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction under health maintenance organization vs fee-for-service insurance. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Sep 27; 159(17):2013-20.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Wallace MB, Kemp JA, Meyer F, Horton K, Reffel A, Christiansen CL, Farraye FA. Screening for colorectal cancer with flexible sigmoidoscopy by nonphysician endoscopists. Am J Med. 1999 Sep; 107(3):214-8.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Guadagnoli E, Christiansen CL, DeJong W, McNamara P, Beasley C, Christiansen E, Evanisko M. The public's willingness to discuss their preference for organ donation with family members. Clin Transplant. 1999 Aug; 13(4):342-8.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Ravn P, Hosking D, Thompson D, Cizza G, Wasnich RD, McClung M, Yates AJ, Bjarnason NH, Christiansen C. Monitoring of alendronate treatment and prediction of effect on bone mass by biochemical markers in the early postmenopausal intervention cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Jul; 84(7):2363-8.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Connelly MT Christiansen C Banyon O Markowitz J Inui TS. The association of symptoms during the menopause with loss of timie and productivity from work. Menopause. 1999; 354(6).
  60. Christiansen CL, Gortmaker SL, Williams JM, Beasley CL, Brigham LE, Capossela C, Matthiesen ME, Gunderson S. A method for estimating solid organ donor potential by organ procurement region. Am J Public Health. 1998 Nov; 88(11):1645-50.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Hosking D, Chilvers CE, Christiansen C, Ravn P, Wasnich R, Ross P, McClung M, Balske A, Thompson D, Daley M, Yates AJ. Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1998 Feb 19; 338(8):485-92.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Christiansen CL, Morris CN. Improving the statistical approach to health care provider profiling. Ann Intern Med. 1997 Oct 15; 127(8 Pt 2):764-8.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Chertow GM, Lazarus JM, Christiansen CL, Cook EF, Hammermeister KE, Grover F, Daley J. Preoperative renal risk stratification. Circulation. 1997 Feb 18; 95(4):878-84.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Ettner SL, Christiansen CL, Callahan TL, Hall JE. How low birthweight and gestational age contribute to increased inpatient costs for multiple births. Inquiry. 1997-1998 Winter; 34(4):325-39.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Christiansen CL, Morris CN. Hierarchical Poisson Regression Modeling. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 1997; 438(92):618-32.
  66. Chertow GM, Seifter JL, Christiansen CL, O'Donnell WJ. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and hypouricemia. Clin Nephrol. 1996 Sep; 46(3):193-8.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Chertow GM, Christiansen CL, Cleary PD, Munro C, Lazarus JM. Prognostic stratification in critically ill patients with acute renal failure requiring dialysis. Arch Intern Med. 1995 Jul 24; 155(14):1505-11.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Morris C, Christiansen C. Fitting Weibull duration models with random effects. Lifetime Data Anal. 1995; 1(4):347-59.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Barsky AJ, Cleary PD, Barnett MC, Christiansen CL, Ruskin JN. The accuracy of symptom reporting by patients complaining of palpitations. Am J Med. 1994 Sep; 97(3):214-21.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Callahan TL, Hall JE, Ettner SL, Christiansen CL, Greene MF, Crowley WF. The economic impact of multiple-gestation pregnancies and the contribution of assisted-reproduction techniques to their incidence. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jul 28; 331(4):244-9.
    View in: PubMed
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