Leonardo Martinez, PhD, MPH
Assistant Professor
Boston University School of Public Health

PhD, University of Georgia
MPH, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine
BA, University of Arizona

Pronouns: he/him/his

Leo Martinez joined the Department of Epidemiology at Boston University in 2021. He completed his doctorate in epidemiology at the University of Georgia and a postdoctoral fellowship at Stanford University School of Medicine.

Dr. Martinez uses epidemiological and quantitative approaches to study early-life risk factors for pediatric tuberculosis in high-burden settings, tuberculosis transmission dynamics in high-risk populations (e.g., prisoners, persons living with HIV or diabetes), and the relationship between tuberculosis and non-communicable diseases.

Dr. Martinez's lab is currently working with colleagues and collaborators in several countries globally. We believe that collaboration across professional disciplines, backgrounds, and perspectives is the key to solving intractable health issues and the lab welcomes discussions with others working on these same health issues.

Dr. Martinez is an International Advisory Board member of the The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health and serves as an academic editor and Editorial Board member for two journals, PLOS Global Public Health and the Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease.

Dr. Martinez has published manuscripts in clinical and epidemiological journals such as The Lancet, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, The Lancet Global Health, The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, The Lancet Public Health, the American Journal of Respiratory Care & Critical Medicine, the European Respiratory Journal, JAMA Internal Medicine, Clinical Infectious Diseases, the American Journal of Epidemiology, amongst others. A list of major publications is listed below but a full list can be seen in the publications tab on this profile page.

Selected Publications:

Martinez L, Gray DM, Botha M, Nel M, Chaya S, Jacobs C, Workman L, Nicol M, Zar HJ. The Long-Term Impact of Early-Life Tuberculosis Disease on Child Health: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2023 Feb 06. PMID: 36746196; DOI: 10.1164/rccm.202208-1543OC;

Martinez L, Cords O, Liu Q, Villaorduna CA, Bonnet M, Fox GJ, Carvalho ACC, Chan PC, Croda J, Hill PC, Lopez-Varela E, Donkor S, Fielding K, Graham SM, Espinal M, Kampmann B, Reingold A, Huerga H, Villalba JA, Grandjean L, Sotgiu G, Egere U, Singh S, Zhu L, Lienhardt C, Denholm JT, Seddon JA, Whalen CC, García-Basteiro AL, Triasih R, Chen C, Singh J, Huang LM, Sharma S, Hannoun D, del Corral H, Mandalakas AM, Malone LL, Ling, DL Kritski A, Stein CM, Vashishtha R, Boulahbal F, Fang CT, W. Henry Boom, Netto EM, Lemos AC, Kay A, Jones-López EC, Horsburgh CR, Lange C, Andrews JR. Infant BCG Vaccination and Risk of Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Throughout the Life Course: An Individual-participant Meta-analysis of 26 Cohort Studies. The Lancet Global Health. [Online Only]. July 2022.

Martinez L, Nicol MP, Wedderburn C, Stadler A, Botha M, Workman L, le Roux DM, Zar HJ (2021). Cytomegalovirus Acquisition in Infancy and the Risk of Tuberculosis in Childhood: A Longitudinal Birth Cohort in Cape Town, South Africa. The Lancet Global Health. 9 (12), e1740-e1749. (IF: 26.8).

Ge Y†, Martinez L†, Sun S, Chen Z, Zhang F, Li F, Sun W, Chen E, Pan J, Li C, Sun J, Handel A, Ling F, Shen Y (2021). Covid-19 transmission dynamics among close contacts of Covid-19 index cases: a population-based cohort study in Zhejiang Province, China. JAMA Internal Medicine. 181 (10): 1343-1350. (IF: 21.9) (†Co-first).

Martinez L, Cords O, Horsburgh CR, Andrews JR, Pediatric TB Contact Studies Consortium (2020). The risk of tuberculosis in children after close exposure: a systematic review and individual-participant meta-analysis. The Lancet. 395, 973-984. (IF: 79.3)

Walter K†, Martinez L†, Arakaki-Sanchez D, Sequera G, Estigarribia G, Cohen T, Ko A, García-Basteiro A, Rueda ZV, Lopez Olarte R, Espinal M, Croda J, Andrews JR (2021). The escalating tuberculosis crisis in Central and South American prisons. The Lancet. 397 (10284): 1591-1596. (IF: 79.3). (†Co-first).

Martinez L, Shen Y, Handel A, Chakraburty S, Stein C, Malone L, Boom WB, Quinn FD, Joloba ML, Whalen CC, Zalwango S (2018). Effectiveness of WHO’s Pragmatic Screening Algorithm for Child Contacts of Tuberculosis Cases in Resource-Constrained Settings: A Prospective Cohort Study in Uganda. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 6 (4), 276–286. (IF: 30.7)

Cords O†, Martinez L†, Warren J, O'Marr JM, Walter KS, Cohen T, Zheng J, Ko AI, Croda J, Andrews JR. Incidence and Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Incarcerated Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (2021). The Lancet Public Health. 6 (5): e300-e308. (IF: 21.648). (†Co-first).

Liu Q, You N, Lu F, Pan H, Lu P, Wang J, Lu W, Zhu L, Martinez L (2021). Glycemic trajectories and treatment outcomes of new tuberculosis patients: a prospective study in Eastern China. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 204 (3): 347-356. (IF: 21.405)

Martinez L, Lo N, Cords O, Hill PC, Khan P, Hatherill M, Mandalakas A, Kay A, Croda J, Horsburgh CR, Zar HJ, Andrews JR (2019). Paediatric Tuberculosis Transmission Outside the Household: Challenging Historical Paradigms to Inform Future Public Health Strategies. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 7 (6), 544-552. (Co-first). (IF: 30.7)

Martinez L, le Roux DM, Barnett W, Nicol MP, Zar HJ (2018). Tuberculin Skin Test Conversion and Primary Progressive Tuberculosis Disease in the First Five Years of Life: A Birth Cohort Study from Cape Town, South Africa. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2(1), 46–55. (IF: 11.3)

Liu Q, Lu P, Shen Y, Li C, Wang K, Zhu L, Lu W, Martinez L (2020). Collateral Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Tuberculosis Control in Jiangsu Province, China. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 73 (3): 542-544. (IF: 9.1)

Martinez L, Sekandi JN, Castellanos ME, Zalwango S, Whalen CC (2016). Infectiousness of HIV-seropositive Patients with Tuberculosis in a High-burden African Setting. The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 194 (9), 1152–1163. (IF: 21.6)

Martinez L, Verma R, Croda J, Horsburgh CR, Walter KS, Degner N, Middelkoop K, Koch A, Hermans S, Warner D, Wood R, Cobelens F, Andrews JR (2019). Detection, Survival, and Infectious Potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Environment: A Review of the Evidence and Epidemiological Implications. European Respiratory Journal, 27; 53 (6). (IF: 12.2)

Martinez L, Woldu H, Chen C, Castellanos ME, Lu P, Liu Q, Whalen CC, Zhu L (2021). Transmission Dynamics in Tuberculosis Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 32 Observational Studies. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 73 (9): e3446-e3455. (IF: 9.1).

Martinez L, Shen Y, Mupere E, Kizza A, Hill PC, Whalen CC (2017). Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Households and the Community: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology. 185 (12), 1327–1339. (IF: 5.4)

Identifying effective and efficient approaches to tuberculosis screening in Brazilian prisons
01/21/2021 - 12/31/2025 (PI)
NIH/National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases


Yr Title Project-Sub Proj Pubs

Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.

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  1. Bobak CA, Botha M, Workman L, Hill JE, Nicol M, Holloway JW, Stein DJ, Martinez L, Zar HJ. Gene expression in cord blood and tuberculosis in early childhood: A nested case-control study in a South African birth cohort. Clin Infect Dis. 2023 May 05. PMID: 37144357; DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciad268;
  2. Martinez L, Zar HJ. Reply to: Intervening on Social Determinants for Better Outcomes in Pediatric Tuberculosis Management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2023 Apr 19. PMID: 37075313; DOI: 10.1164/rccm.202304-0629LE;
  3. Martinez L, Gray DM, Botha M, Nel M, Chaya S, Jacobs C, Workman L, Nicol MP, Zar HJ. The Long-Term Impact of Early-Life Tuberculosis Disease on Child Health: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2023 Apr 15; 207(8):1080-1088. PMID: 36746196; DOI: 10.1164/rccm.202208-1543OC;
  4. Lu P, Wu K, Zhou H, Yu H, Yuan J, Dong L, Liu Q, Ding X, Lu W, Yang H, Zhu L, Martinez L. Evaluation of ESAT6-CFP10 Skin Test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection among Persons Living with HIV in China. J Clin Microbiol. 2023 Apr 20; 61(4):e0181622. PMID: 36946732; PMCID: PMC10117090; DOI: 10.1128/jcm.01816-22;
  5. Liu Q, Wang Z, Lu J, Li Z, Martinez L, Tao B, Wang C, Zhu L, Lu W, Zhu B, Pei X, Mao X. Effects of short-term PM2.5 exposure on blood lipids among 197,957 people in eastern China. Sci Rep. 2023 Mar 18; 13(1):4505. PMID: 36934119; PMCID: PMC10024762; DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-31513-y;
  6. Liu Q, You N, Wen J, Wang J, Ge Y, Shen Y, Ding X, Lu P, Chen C, Zhu B, Zhu L, Lu W, Martinez L. Yield and efficiency of a population-based mass tuberculosis screening intervention among persons with diabetes in Jiangsu Province, China. Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Mar 03. PMID: 36869807; DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciad118;
  7. Chen C, Hu X, Shao Y, Song H, Li G, Lu W, Martinez L, Xu J, Zhu L. The association between diabetes status and latent-TB IGRA levels from a cross-sectional study in eastern China. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022; 12:1057298. PMID: 36726641; PMCID: PMC9884689; DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.1057298;
  8. Hamada Y, Gupta RK, Quartagno M, Izzard A, Acuna-Villaorduna C, Altet N, Diel R, Dominguez J, Floyd S, Gupta A, Huerga H, Jones-López EC, Kinikar A, Lange C, van Leth F, Liu Q, Lu W, Lu P, Rueda IL, Martinez L, Mbandi SK, Muñoz L, Padilla ES, Paradkar M, Scriba T, Sester M, Shanaube K, Sharma SK, Sloot R, Sotgiu G, Thiruvengadam K, Vashishtha R, Abubakar I, Rangaka MX. Predictive performance of interferon-gamma release assays and the tuberculin skin test for incident tuberculosis: an individual participant data meta-analysis. EClinicalMedicine. 2023 Feb; 56:101815.View Related Profiles. PMID: 36636295; PMCID: PMC9829704; DOI: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101815;
  9. Restrepo BI, Scordo JM, Aguillón-Durán GP, Ayala D, Quirino-Cerrillo AP, Loera-Salazar R, Cruz-González A, Caso JA, Joya-Ayala M, García-Oropesa EM, Salinas AB, Martinez L, Schlesinger LS, Torrelles JB, Turner J. Differential Role of Type 2 Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Tuberculosis in the Elderly versus Younger Adults. Pathogens. 2022 Dec 16; 11(12). PMID: 36558885; PMCID: PMC9784720; DOI: 10.3390/pathogens11121551;
  10. Tan J, Shen Y, Ge Y, Martinez L, Huang H. Age-related model for estimating the symptomatic and asymptomatic transmissibility of COVID-19 patients. Biometrics. 2022 Dec 14. PMID: 36517992; PMCID: PMC9877699; DOI: 10.1111/biom.13814;
Showing 10 of 90 results. Show More

This graph shows the total number of publications by year, by first, middle/unknown, or last author.

Bar chart showing 90 publications over 11 distinct years, with a maximum of 23 publications in 2021


2020 International Union Against Tuberculosis & Lung Disease: The Union Young Investigator Prize
2020 American Thoracic Society, Assembly on Pulmonary Infections & Tuberculosis : Rising Star Award
2019 University of Washington: Tuberculosis Research & Training Center TB Junior Investigator Award
2017 LSHTM, University of Cape Town, International Union Against Tuberculosis & Lung Disease, Lancet: Stephen Lawn TB-HIV Research Leadership Prize
In addition to these self-described keywords below, a list of MeSH based concepts is available here.

Infectious Diseases
HIV Infection
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