Keywords
Last Name

Avrum Spira, MD

TitleAlexander Graham Bell Professor in Health Care Entrepreneurship
InstitutionBoston University School of Medicine
DepartmentMedicine
DivisionComputational Biomedicine
Address75 E. Newton St Evans Building
Boston MA 02118
Phone(617) 414-6980
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0003-1467-0489
Other Positions
TitleChief -Section of Medicine>Computational Biomedicine
InstitutionBoston University School of Medicine
DepartmentMedicine
DivisionComputational Biomedicine

TitleProfessor
InstitutionBoston University School of Medicine
DepartmentPathology & Laboratory Medicine

TitleMentor for Graduate Medical Students
InstitutionBoston University School of Medicine, Graduate Medical Sciences

TitleActive Staff Privileges
InstitutionBoston Medical Center
DepartmentMedicine
DivisionPulmonary, Allergy, Sleep & Critical Care Medicine

TitleMember
InstitutionBoston University
DepartmentBioinformatics Graduate Program

 Research Expertise & Professional Interests
Dr. Spira is a Professor in the Departments of Medicine, and Pathology and Bioinformatics and is founding Chief of the Division of Computational Biomedicine in the Department of Medicine at BUSM. He attends in the Medical Intensive Care Unit at Boston Medical Center and directs the Translational Bioinformatics Program in the Clinical and Translational Science Institute at Boston University.

Dr. Spira’s laboratory research interests focus on applying genomic and bioinformatics tools to the translational study of lung cancer and Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD), with the ultimate objective of developing novel diagnostics and therapeutics that can directly impact clinical care. He is funded as a Principal Investigator through three institutes at the NIH including the NCI, NHLBI, and NIEHS as well as the Department of Defense. His research program centers around the concept that inhaled toxins create a “field of injury” in all exposed airway epithelial cells, and that by measuring gene expression in a relatively pure population of these cells, one can develop a gene-expression profile that reflects the physiological response to and damage from the toxin. The importance of the “field-of-injury” concept is that it allows for the detection of lung disease in tissues that are more readily assayed than the diseased lung itself.

His lab has characterized the impact of cigarette smoking on intra-thoracic (lobar bronchi) and extra-thoracic (mouth and nasal) airway epithelial cell gene expression, and he has leveraged this approach to develop a bronchial airway gene-expression biomarker for the early detection of lung cancer that is currently being validated in a multicenter clinical trial. His lab has also extended this “field of injury” paradigm to the premalignant and lung cancer screening settings, potentially allowing personalized genomic approaches to lung cancer chemoprophylaxis and therapy. This disease-specific airway “field of injury” concept is also being applied to Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD), to better understand the molecular diversity of COPD, both for developing subtype-targeted therapies and for developing biomarkers that would allow identification of biologically distinct forms of COPD. Most significantly, his lab has identified airway gene-expression biomarkers that can be used to monitor disease activity and response to therapy in COPD, and they have connected gene expression signatures of disease in clinical samples to in vitro small molecule perturbations to move from bedside to bench and identify new uses for existing drugs as potential COPD therapeutics. Finally, we are exploring gene-expression profiles in nasal and buccal epithelium as biomarkers of the physiological response to inhaled toxins and their potential role as lung disease biomarkers in large-scale population studies.

 Self-Described Keywords
  • airway epithelium
  • airway gene expression
  • bioinformatics
  • cancer biomarkers
  • COPD
  • gene-expression
  • genomics
  • lung cancer
  • smoking
 Publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
List All   |   Timeline
  1. Kathuria H, Gesthalter Y, Spira A, Brody JS, Steiling K. Updates and controversies in the rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening, early detection, and chemoprevention. Cancers (Basel). 2014; 6(2):1157-79.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Vucic EA, Chari R, Thu KL, Wilson IM, Cotton AM, Kennett JY, Zhang M, Lonergan KM, Steiling K, Brown CJ, McWilliams A, Ohtani K, Lenburg ME, Sin DD, Spira A, Macaulay CE, Lam S, Lam WL. DNA methylation is globally disrupted and associated with expression changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease small airways. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014 May; 50(5):912-22.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Ooi AT, Gower AC, Zhang KX, Vick JL, Hong L, Nagao B, Wallace WD, Elashoff DA, Walser TC, Dubinett SM, Pellegrini M, Lenburg ME, Spira A, Gomperts BN. Molecular profiling of premalignant lesions in lung squamous cell carcinomas identifies mechanisms involved in stepwise carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 May; 7(5):487-95.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Christmann RB, Sampaio-Barros P, Stifano G, Borges CL, de Carvalho CR, Kairalla R, Parra ER, Spira A, Simms R, Capellozzi VL, Lafyatis R. Association of Interferon- and Transforming Growth Factor ß-Regulated Genes and Macrophage Activation With Systemic Sclerosis-Related Progressive Lung Fibrosis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014 Mar; 66(3):714-25.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Kadara H, Fujimoto J, Yoo SY, Maki Y, Gower AC, Kabbout M, Garcia MM, Chow CW, Chu Z, Mendoza G, Shen L, Kalhor N, Hong WK, Moran C, Wang J, Spira A, Coombes KR, Wistuba II. Transcriptomic architecture of the adjacent airway field cancerization in non-small cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014 Mar 1; 106(3):dju004.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Krysan K, Kusko R, Grogan T, O''Hearn J, Reckamp KL, Walser TC, Garon EB, Lenburg ME, Sharma S, Spira AE, Elashoff D, Dubinett SM. PGE2-Driven Expression of c-Myc and OncomiR-17-92 Contributes to Apoptosis Resistance in NSCLC. Mol Cancer Res. 2014 May; 12(5):765-74.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Christenson SA, Brandsma CA, Campbell JD, Knight DA, Pechkovsky DV, Hogg JC, Timens W, Postma DS, Lenburg M, Spira A. miR-638 regulates gene expression networks associated with emphysematous lung destruction. Genome Med. 2013; 5(12):114.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Steiling K, Lenburg ME, Spira A. Personalized Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease via Transcriptomic Profiling of the Airway and Lung. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013 Dec; 10 Suppl:S190-6.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Perdomo C, Campbell JD, Gerrein J, Tellez CS, Garrison CB, Walser TC, Drizik E, Si H, Gower AC, Vick J, Anderlind C, Jackson GR, Mankus C, Schembri F, O''Hara C, Gomperts BN, Dubinett SM, Hayden P, Belinsky SA, Lenburg ME, Spira A. MicroRNA 4423 is a primate-specific regulator of airway epithelial cell differentiation and lung carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 19; 110(47):18946-51.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Dubinett SM, Spira A. Challenge and opportunity of targeted lung cancer chemoprevention. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Nov 20; 31(33):4169-71.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Krysan K, Cui X, Gardner BK, Reckamp KL, Wang X, Hong L, Walser TC, Rodriguez NL, Pagano PC, Garon EB, Brothers JF, Elashoff D, Lee JM, Spira AE, Sharma S, Fishbein MC, Dubinett SM. Elevated neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin contributes to erlotinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. Am J Transl Res. 2013; 5(5):481-96.
    View in: PubMed
  12. van den Berge M, Steiling K, Timens W, Hiemstra PS, Sterk PJ, Heijink IH, Liu G, Alekseyev YO, Lenburg ME, Spira A, Postma DS. Airway gene expression in COPD is dynamic with inhaled corticosteroid treatment and reflects biological pathways associated with disease activity. Thorax. 2014 Jan; 69(1):14-23.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Brothers JF, Hijazi K, Mascaux C, El-Zein RA, Spitz MR, Spira A. Bridging the clinical gaps: genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomic biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer in the post-National Lung Screening Trial era. BMC Med. 2013; 11:168.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Steiling K, van den Berge M, Hijazi K, Florido R, Campbell J, Liu G, Xiao J, Zhang X, Duclos G, Drizik E, Si H, Perdomo C, Dumont C, Coxson HO, Alekseyev YO, Sin D, Pare P, Hogg JC, McWilliams A, Hiemstra PS, Sterk PJ, Timens W, Chang JT, Sebastiani P, O'Connor GT, Bild AH, Postma DS, Lam S, Spira A, Lenburg ME. A dynamic bronchial airway gene expression signature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung function impairment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 May 1; 187(9):933-42.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Hossein-nezhad A, Spira A, Holick MF. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58725.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Zhang X, Lenburg ME, Spira A. Comparison of nasal epithelial smoking-induced gene expression on Affymetrix Exon 1.0 and Gene 1.0 ST arrays. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013; 2013:951416.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Jean JC, George E, Kaestner KH, Brown LA, Spira A, Joyce-Brady M. Transcription factor Klf4, induced in the lung by oxygen at birth, regulates perinatal fibroblast and myofibroblast differentiation. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54806.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Coleman DL, Spira A, Ravid K. Promoting interdisciplinary research in departments of medicine: results from two models at Boston university school of medicine. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2013; 124:275-82.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Sommer CA, Christodoulou C, Gianotti-Sommer A, Shen SS, Sailaja BS, Hezroni H, Spira A, Meshorer E, Kotton DN, Mostoslavsky G. Residual expression of reprogramming factors affects the transcriptional program and epigenetic signatures of induced pluripotent stem cells. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e51711.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Gomperts BN, Walser TC, Spira A, Dubinett SM. Enriching the molecular definition of the airway "field of cancerization:" establishing new paradigms for the patient at risk for lung cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Jan; 6(1):4-7.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Spira A, Nana-Sinkam SP. Using microRNAs to inform clinical decision making in lung cancer: ready for prime time? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Dec 1; 186(11):1077-9.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Beane J, Cheng L, Soldi R, Zhang X, Liu G, Anderlind C, Lenburg ME, Spira A, Bild AH. SIRT1 pathway dysregulation in the smoke-exposed airway epithelium and lung tumor tissue. Cancer Res. 2012 Nov 15; 72(22):5702-11.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Quinton LJ, Blahna MT, Jones MR, Allen E, Ferrari JD, Hilliard KL, Zhang X, Sabharwal V, Algül H, Akira S, Schmid RM, Pelton SI, Spira A, Mizgerd JP. Hepatocyte-specific mutation of both NF-?B RelA and STAT3 abrogates the acute phase response in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012 May 1; 122(5):1758-63.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Tagne JB, Gupta S, Gower AC, Shen SS, Varma S, Lakshminarayanan M, Cao Y, Spira A, Volkert TL, Ramirez MI. Genome-wide analyses of Nkx2-1 binding to transcriptional target genes uncover novel regulatory patterns conserved in lung development and tumors. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29907.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Gower AC, Spira A, Lenburg ME. Discovering biological connections between experimental conditions based on common patterns of differential gene expression. BMC Bioinformatics. 2011; 12:381.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Cohen AL, Soldi R, Zhang H, Gustafson AM, Wilcox R, Welm BE, Chang JT, Johnson E, Spira A, Jeffrey SS, Bild AH. A pharmacogenomic method for individualized prediction of drug sensitivity. Mol Syst Biol. 2011; 7:513.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Beane J, Vick J, Schembri F, Anderlind C, Gower A, Campbell J, Luo L, Zhang XH, Xiao J, Alekseyev YO, Wang S, Levy S, Massion PP, Lenburg M, Spira A. Characterizing the impact of smoking and lung cancer on the airway transcriptome using RNA-Seq. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Jun; 4(6):803-17.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Christodoulou C, Longmire TA, Shen SS, Bourdon A, Sommer CA, Gadue P, Spira A, Gouon-Evans V, Murphy GJ, Mostoslavsky G, Kotton DN. Mouse ES and iPS cells can form similar definitive endoderm despite differences in imprinted genes. J Clin Invest. 2011 Jun; 121(6):2313-25.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Gower AC, Steiling K, Brothers JF, Lenburg ME, Spira A. Transcriptomic studies of the airway field of injury associated with smoking-related lung disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2011 May; 8(2):173-9.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Perdomo C, Spira A, Schembri F. MiRNAs as regulators of the response to inhaled environmental toxins and airway carcinogenesis. Mutat Res. 2011 Dec 1; 717(1-2):32-7.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Gomperts BN, Spira A, Massion PP, Walser TC, Wistuba II, Minna JD, Dubinett SM. Evolving concepts in lung carcinogenesis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Feb; 32(1):32-43.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Campbell JD, Spira A, Lenburg ME. Applying gene expression microarrays to pulmonary disease. Respirology. 2011 Apr; 16(3):407-18.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Boelens MC, Gustafson AM, Postma DS, Kok K, van der Vries G, van der Vlies P, Spira A, Lenburg ME, Geerlings M, Sietsma H, Timens W, van den Berg A, Groen HJ. A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease related signature in squamous cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2011 May; 72(2):177-83.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Ooi AT, Mah V, Nickerson DW, Gilbert JL, Ha VL, Hegab AE, Horvath S, Alavi M, Maresh EL, Chia D, Gower AC, Lenburg ME, Spira A, Solis LM, Wistuba II, Walser TC, Wallace WD, Dubinett SM, Goodglick L, Gomperts BN. Presence of a putative tumor-initiating progenitor cell population predicts poor prognosis in smokers with non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res. 2010 Aug 15; 70(16):6639-48.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Wang X, Chorley BN, Pittman GS, Kleeberger SR, Brothers J, Liu G, Spira A, Bell DA. Genetic variation and antioxidant response gene expression in the bronchial airway epithelium of smokers at risk for lung cancer. PLoS One. 2010; 5(8):e11934.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Wu J, Qian J, Li C, Kwok L, Cheng F, Liu P, Perdomo C, Kotton D, Vaziri C, Anderlind C, Spira A, Cardoso WV, Lü J. miR-129 regulates cell proliferation by downregulating Cdk6 expression. Cell Cycle. 2010 May; 9(9):1809-18.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Gustafson AM, Soldi R, Anderlind C, Scholand MB, Qian J, Zhang X, Cooper K, Walker D, McWilliams A, Liu G, Szabo E, Brody J, Massion PP, Lenburg ME, Lam S, Bild AH, Spira A. Airway PI3K pathway activation is an early and reversible event in lung cancer development. Sci Transl Med. 2010 Apr 7; 2(26):26ra25.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Gomperts BN, Spira A, Elashoff DE, Dubinett SM. Lung cancer biomarkers: FISHing in the sputum for risk assessment and early detection. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010 Apr; 3(4):420-3.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Spira A. Upper airway gene expression in smokers: the mouth as a "window to the soul" of lung carcinogenesis? Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010 Mar; 3(3):255-8.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Steiling K, Spira A. In: UpToDate, Basow DS (Ed). Topics in genetics and genomics: Gene Expression. UpToDate. Waltham, MA. 2010.
  41. Zhang X, Sebastiani P, Liu G, Schembri F, Zhang X, Dumas YM, Langer EM, Alekseyev Y, O'Connor GT, Brooks DR, Lenburg ME, Spira A. Similarities and differences between smoking-related gene expression in nasal and bronchial epithelium. Physiol Genomics. 2010 Mar 3; 41(1):1-8.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Steiling K, Lenburg ME, Spira A. Airway gene expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2009 Dec; 6(8):697-700.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Silverman EK, Spira A, Paré PD. Genetics and genomics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2009 Sep 15; 6(6):539-42.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Steiling K, Kadar AY, Bergerat A, Flanigon J, Sridhar S, Shah V, Ahmad QR, Brody JS, Lenburg ME, Steffen M, Spira A. Comparison of proteomic and transcriptomic profiles in the bronchial airway epithelium of current and never smokers. PLoS One. 2009; 4(4):e5043.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Schembri F, Sridhar S, Perdomo C, Gustafson AM, Zhang X, Ergun A, Lu J, Liu G, Zhang X, Bowers J, Vaziri C, Ott K, Sensinger K, Collins JJ, Brody JS, Getts R, Lenburg ME, Spira A. MicroRNAs as modulators of smoking-induced gene expression changes in human airway epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 17; 106(7):2319-24.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Beane J, Spira A, Lenburg ME. Clinical impact of high-throughput gene expression studies in lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2009 Jan; 4(1):109-18.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Kathuria, H, Spira A, Brody J. Genomics in the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer. In Ginsburg G (Ed): Essential Genomic and Personalized Medicine. Elsevier. 2009.
  48. Zeskind JE, Lenburg ME, Spira A. Translating the COPD transcriptome: insights into pathogenesis and tools for clinical management. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008 Dec 1; 5(8):834-41.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Steiling K, Ryan J, Brody JS, Spira A. The field of tissue injury in the lung and airway. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008 Nov; 1(6):396-403.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Sridhar S, Schembri F, Zeskind J, Shah V, Gustafson AM, Steiling K, Liu G, Dumas YM, Zhang X, Brody JS, Lenburg ME, Spira A. Smoking-induced gene expression changes in the bronchial airway are reflected in nasal and buccal epithelium. BMC Genomics. 2008; 9:259.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Beane J, Sebastiani P, Whitfield TH, Steiling K, Dumas YM, Lenburg ME, Spira A. A prediction model for lung cancer diagnosis that integrates genomic and clinical features. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008 Jun; 1(1):56-64.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Millien G, Beane J, Lenburg M, Tsao PN, Lu J, Spira A, Ramirez MI. Characterization of the mid-foregut transcriptome identifies genes regulated during lung bud induction. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008 Jan; 8(2):124-39.
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  53. Spira A, Beane JE, Shah V, Steiling K, Liu G, Schembri F, Gilman S, Dumas YM, Calner P, Sebastiani P, Sridhar S, Beamis J, Lamb C, Anderson T, Gerry N, Keane J, Lenburg ME, Brody JS. Airway epithelial gene expression in the diagnostic evaluation of smokers with suspect lung cancer. Nat Med. 2007 Mar; 13(3):361-6.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Zhang X, Liu G, Lenburg ME, Spira A. Comparison of smoking-induced gene expression on Affymetrix Exon and 3'-based expression arrays. Genome Inform. 2007; 18:247-57.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Beane J, Kadar A, DeLisi C, Spira A. Diagnostic and Prognostic Impact of high-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies in the post-genomic era. In McPherson and Pincus M (ed): Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, 21st Edition. Saunders/Elsevier. Philadelphia. 2007.
  56. Beane J, Sebastiani P, Liu G, Brody JS, Lenburg ME, Spira A. Reversible and permanent effects of tobacco smoke exposure on airway epithelial gene expression. Genome Biol. 2007; 8(9):R201.
    View in: PubMed
  57. DeMeo D, Mariani T, Lange C, Lake S, Litonjua A, Celedón J, Reilly J, Chapman HA, Sparrow D, Spira A, Beane J, Pinto-Plata V, Speizer FE, Shapiro S, Weiss ST, Silverman EK. The SERPINE2 gene is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2006 Aug; 3(6):502.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Brody JS, Spira A. State of the art. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammation, and lung cancer. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2006 Aug; 3(6):535-7.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Millien G, Spira A, Hinds A, Wang J, Williams MC, Ramirez MI. Alterations in gene expression in T1 alpha null lung: a model of deficient alveolar sac development. BMC Dev Biol. 2006; 6:35.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Demeo DL, Mariani TJ, Lange C, Srisuma S, Litonjua AA, Celedon JC, Lake SL, Reilly JJ, Chapman HA, Mecham BH, Haley KJ, Sylvia JS, Sparrow D, Spira AE, Beane J, Pinto-Plata V, Speizer FE, Shapiro SD, Weiss ST, Silverman EK. The SERPINE2 gene is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Feb; 78(2):253-64.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Shah V, Sridhar S, Beane J, Brody JS, Spira A. SIEGE: Smoking Induced Epithelial Gene Expression Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Jan 1; 33(Database issue):D573-9.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Kadar A, Spira A. Smoking and the Molecular Mechanisms of Atherogenesis. In Loscalzo J (ed): Molecular Mechanisms in Atherosclerosis. The Partheon Publishing Group. Lancaster, UK. 2005; 209-220.
  63. Spira A, Beane J, Pinto-Plata V, Kadar A, Liu G, Shah V, Celli B, Brody JS. Gene expression profiling of human lung tissue from smokers with severe emphysema. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Dec; 31(6):601-10.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Spira A, Beane J, Shah V, Liu G, Schembri F, Yang X, Palma J, Brody JS. Effects of cigarette smoke on the human airway epithelial cell transcriptome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 6; 101(27):10143-8.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Spira A, Schembri F, Beane J, Shah V, Liu G, Brody JS. Impact of cigarette smoke on the normal airway transcriptome. Chest. 2004 May; 125(5 Suppl):115S.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Spira A, Beane J, Schembri F, Liu G, Ding C, Gilman S, Yang X, Cantor C, Brody JS. Noninvasive method for obtaining RNA from buccal mucosa epithelial cells for gene expression profiling. Biotechniques. 2004 Mar; 36(3):484-7.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Hoffman A, Awad T, Spira A, Palma J, Webster T, Wright G, Buckley J, Davis R, Hubbell E, Jones W, Tibshirani R, Tompkins R, Triche T, Xiao W ,West M, Warrington J. Expression profiling — best practices for data generation and interpretation in clinical trials. Nature Reviews Genetics. 2004; 5:229-38.
  68. Spira A, Carroll JD, Liu G, Aziz Z, Shah V, Kornfeld H, Keane J. Apoptosis genes in human alveolar macrophages infected with virulent or attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a pivotal role for tumor necrosis factor. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003 Nov; 29(5):545-51.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Powell CA, Spira A, Derti A, DeLisi C, Liu G, Borczuk A, Busch S, Sahasrabudhe S, Chen Y, Sugarbaker D, Bueno R, Richards WG, Brody JS. Gene expression in lung adenocarcinomas of smokers and nonsmokers. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003 Aug; 29(2):157-62.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Spira A, Yanai I, Chettier R, Wu J, DeLisi C. High-Throughput Functional Inference in the Post-Genomic Era. In Appasani K (ed): Perspectives in Gene Expression. Eaton Publishing. Westboro, MA. 2003; 345-357.
  71. Spira A. To tell or not to tell: Genetic testing and the physician’s duty to disclose results to relatives. The Journal of Biolaw and Business. Special Bio-Ethix Supplement. 2002; 3-9.
  72. Spira A, Brecher S, Karlinsky J. Pulmonary mucormycosis in the setting of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A case report and review of the literature. Respiration. 2002; 69(6):560-3.
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