Keywords
Last Name

William J. Lehman, PhD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionBoston University School of Medicine
DepartmentPhysiology & Biophysics
Address72 E. Concord St Instructional (L)
Boston MA 02118
Phone(617) 638-4397
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-9430-9521
Other Positions
TitleGraduate Faculty (Primary Mentor of Grad Students)
InstitutionBoston University School of Medicine, Division of Graduate Medical Sciences

 Research Expertise & Professional Interests
We are involved in structural studies on the assembly and function of actin-containing thin filaments in muscle and non-muscle cells. Our principal goal is to analyze and elucidate the mechanisms of thin filament-linked regulation of muscle contraction and cytoskeletal remodeling. To accomplish this goal, we use a combination of molecular biology, electron microscopy, electron tomography, image reconstruction and molecular dynamics protocols to better understand the interactions and dynamics of protein components of isolated and reconstituted thin filaments. Studies on mutants are carried out to better understand abnormal filament function in disease processes. We have an excellent track record in successfully educating graduate and post-doctoral students in the application of the state-of-the-art techniques that we use. In particular, we have trained students with backgrounds in biological and biochemical sciences (my own experience) to be fearless about the challenge of carrying out sophisticated biophysical approaches, and, conversely, teaching students with background in physical and computational sciences to understand the biomedical underpinnings of our work. This dual process of training students with these diverse backgrounds in one laboratory setting is synergistic. As a sign of our success, of the 19 papers that have been published by us since 2007, 12 were co-authored by 5 different post-doctoral fellows and by 3 graduate students from my laboratory.
Our laboratory was the first to directly visualize the steric-blocking mechanism of muscle regulation by identifying the positions assumed by tropomyosin on actin in the presence and the absence of Ca2+ using cryo-electron microscopy and negative staining. We also have demonstrated that during muscle activation tropomyosin moves away from myosin cross-bridge binding sites on actin in two highly cooperative steps, one induced by Ca2+ binding to troponin and a second induced by the binding of myosin to actin. Our laboratory is continuing the above-mentioned studies to obtain even greater resolution of the processes involved. At the same time, we are investigating the structural organization of troponin on thin filaments and the changes it undergoes on binding of Ca2+. We are also engaged in studies on the structural interactions of other actin binding proteins including a-actinin, caldesmon, calponin, cortactin, filamin and native and mutant dystrophin, namely proteins that play important roles in the organization of the cytoskeleton in striated and smooth muscles as well as in non-muscle cells.

 NIH RePORTER Grants
 Self-Described Keywords
  • actin
  • caldesmon
  • calponin
  • Electron Microscopy
  • Molecular Dynamics
  • muscle regulation
  • tropomyosin
  • troponin
 Publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
List All   |   Timeline
  1. Sewanan LR, Moore JR, Lehman W, Campbell SG. Predicting Effects of Tropomyosin Mutations on Cardiac Muscle Contraction through Myofilament Modeling. Front Physiol. 2016; 7:473. PMID: 27833562.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Rynkiewicz MJ, Fischer S, Lehman W. The propensity for tropomyosin twisting in the presence and absence of F-actin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2016 Nov 01; 609:51-58. PMID: 27663225.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Lehman W. Thin Filament Structure and the Steric Blocking Model. Compr Physiol. 2016 Mar 15; 6(2):1043-69. PMID: 27065174.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Moore JR, Campbell SG, Lehman W. Structural determinants of muscle thin filament cooperativity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2016 Mar 15; 594:8-17. PMID: 26891592.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Fischer S, Rynkiewicz MJ, Moore JR, Lehman W. Tropomyosin diffusion over actin subunits facilitates thin filament assembly. Struct Dyn. 2016 Jan; 3(1):012002. PMID: 26798831.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Rynkiewicz MJ, Schott V, Orzechowski M, Lehman W, Fischer S. Electrostatic interaction map reveals a new binding position for tropomyosin on F-actin. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2015 Dec; 36(6):525-33. PMID: 26286845.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Alamo L, Li XE, Espinoza-Fonseca LM, Pinto A, Thomas DD, Lehman W, Padrón R. Tarantula myosin free head regulatory light chain phosphorylation stiffens N-terminal extension, releasing it and blocking its docking back. Mol Biosyst. 2015 Aug; 11(8):2180-9. PMID: 26038302.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Schmidt WM, Lehman W, Moore JR. Direct observation of tropomyosin binding to actin filaments. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2015 Jun; 72(6):292-303. PMID: 26033920.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Begonja AJ, Pluthero FG, Suphamungmee W, Giannini S, Christensen H, Leung R, Lo RW, Nakamura F, Lehman W, Plomann M, Hoffmeister KM, Kahr WH, Hartwig JH, Falet H. FlnA binding to PACSIN2 F-BAR domain regulates membrane tubulation in megakaryocytes and platelets. Blood. 2015 Jul 2; 126(1):80-8. PMID: 25838348.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Lehman W, Medlock G, Li XE, Suphamungmee W, Tu AY, Schmidtmann A, Ujfalusi Z, Fischer S, Moore JR, Geeves MA, Regnier M. Phosphorylation of Ser283 enhances the stiffness of the tropomyosin head-to-tail overlap domain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2015 Apr 1; 571:10-5. PMID: 25726728.
    View in: PubMed
  11. von der Ecken J, Müller M, Lehman W, Manstein DJ, Penczek PA, Raunser S. Structure of the F-actin-tropomyosin complex. Nature. 2015 Mar 5; 519(7541):114-7. PMID: 25470062.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Orzechowski M, Fischer S, Moore JR, Lehman W, Farman GP. Energy landscapes reveal the myopathic effects of tropomyosin mutations. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014 Dec 15; 564:89-99. PMID: 25241052.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Orzechowski M, Li XE, Fischer S, Lehman W. An atomic model of the tropomyosin cable on F-actin. Biophys J. 2014 Aug 5; 107(3):694-9. PMID: 25099808.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Gu C, Chang J, Shchedrina VA, Pham VA, Hartwig JH, Suphamungmee W, Lehman W, Hyman BT, Bacskai BJ, Sever S. Regulation of dynamin oligomerization in cells: the role of dynamin-actin interactions and its GTPase activity. Traffic. 2014 Aug; 15(8):819-38. PMID: 24891099.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Li XE, Orzechowski M, Lehman W, Fischer S. Structure and flexibility of the tropomyosin overlap junction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Mar 28; 446(1):304-8. PMID: 24607906.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Yang S, Barbu-Tudoran L, Orzechowski M, Craig R, Trinick J, White H, Lehman W. Three-dimensional organization of troponin on cardiac muscle thin filaments in the relaxed state. Biophys J. 2014 Feb 18; 106(4):855-64. PMID: 24559988.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Orzechowski M, Moore JR, Fischer S, Lehman W. Tropomyosin movement on F-actin during muscle activation explained by energy landscapes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014 Mar 1; 545:63-8. PMID: 24412204.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Viswanathan MC, Kaushik G, Engler AJ, Lehman W, Cammarato A. A Drosophila melanogaster model of diastolic dysfunction and cardiomyopathy based on impaired troponin-T function. Circ Res. 2014 Jan 17; 114(2):e6-17. PMID: 24221941.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Lehman W, Li XE, Orzechowski M, Fischer S. The structural dynamics of a-tropomyosin on F-actin shape the overlap complex between adjacent tropomyosin molecules. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014 Jun 15; 552-553:68-73. PMID: 24071513.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Marston S, Memo M, Messer A, Papadaki M, Nowak K, McNamara E, Ong R, El-Mezgueldi M, Li X, Lehman W. Mutations in repeating structural motifs of tropomyosin cause gain of function in skeletal muscle myopathy patients. Hum Mol Genet. 2013 Dec 15; 22(24):4978-87. PMID: 23886664.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Janco M, Suphamungmee W, Li X, Lehman W, Lehrer SS, Geeves MA. Polymorphism in tropomyosin structure and function. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2013 Aug; 34(3-4):177-87. PMID: 23832280.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Lehman W, Orzechowski M, Li XE, Fischer S, Raunser S. Gestalt-binding of tropomyosin on actin during thin filament activation. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2013 Aug; 34(3-4):155-63. PMID: 23666668.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Suphamungmee W, Nakamura F, Hartwig JH, Lehman W. Electron microscopy and 3D reconstruction reveals filamin Ig domain binding to F-actin. J Mol Biol. 2012 Dec 14; 424(5):248-56. PMID: 23041423.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Li XE, Suphamungmee W, Janco M, Geeves MA, Marston SB, Fischer S, Lehman W. The flexibility of two tropomyosin mutants, D175N and E180G, that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Aug 3; 424(3):493-6. PMID: 22789852.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Lehman W, Morgan KG. Structure and dynamics of the actin-based smooth muscle contractile and cytoskeletal apparatus. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2012 Dec; 33(6):461-9. PMID: 22311558.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Jensen MH, Watt J, Hodgkinson JL, Gallant C, Appel S, El-Mezgueldi M, Angelini TE, Morgan KG, Lehman W, Moore JR. Effects of basic calponin on the flexural mechanics and stability of F-actin. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2012 Jan; 69(1):49-58. PMID: 22135101.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Rao JN, Rivera-Santiago R, Li XE, Lehman W, Dominguez R. Structural analysis of smooth muscle tropomyosin a and ß isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 27; 287(5):3165-74. PMID: 22119916.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Cammarato A, Li XE, Reedy MC, Lee CF, Lehman W, Bernstein SI. Structural basis for myopathic defects engendered by alterations in the myosin rod. J Mol Biol. 2011 Dec 9; 414(4):477-84. PMID: 22037585.
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  29. East DA, Sousa D, Martin SR, Edwards TA, Lehman W, Mulvihill DP. Altering the stability of the Cdc8 overlap region modulates the ability of this tropomyosin to bind co-operatively to actin and regulate myosin. Biochem J. 2011 Sep 1; 438(2):265-73. PMID: 21658004.
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  30. Moore JR, Li X, Nirody J, Fischer S, Lehman W. Structural implications of conserved aspartate residues located in tropomyosin's coiled-coil core. Bioarchitecture. 2011 Sep 01; 1(5):250-255. PMID: 22754618.
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  31. Mun JY, Gulick J, Robbins J, Woodhead J, Lehman W, Craig R. Electron microscopy and 3D reconstruction of F-actin decorated with cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C). J Mol Biol. 2011 Jul 8; 410(2):214-25. PMID: 21601575.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Collins A, Huang R, Jensen MH, Moore JR, Lehman W, Wang CL. Structural studies on maturing actin filaments. Bioarchitecture. 2011 May; 1(3):127-133. PMID: 21922043.
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  33. Li XE, Tobacman LS, Mun JY, Craig R, Fischer S, Lehman W. Tropomyosin position on F-actin revealed by EM reconstruction and computational chemistry. Biophys J. 2011 Feb 16; 100(4):1005-13. PMID: 21320445.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Gallant C, Appel S, Graceffa P, Leavis P, Lin JJ, Gunning PW, Schevzov G, Chaponnier C, DeGnore J, Lehman W, Morgan KG. Tropomyosin variants describe distinct functional subcellular domains in differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011 Jun; 300(6):C1356-65. PMID: 21289288.
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  35. Coulton AT, East DA, Galinska-Rakoczy A, Lehman W, Mulvihill DP. The recruitment of acetylated and unacetylated tropomyosin to distinct actin polymers permits the discrete regulation of specific myosins in fission yeast. J Cell Sci. 2010 Oct 1; 123(Pt 19):3235-43. PMID: 20807799.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Sousa D, Cammarato A, Jang K, Graceffa P, Tobacman LS, Li XE, Lehman W. Electron microscopy and persistence length analysis of semi-rigid smooth muscle tropomyosin strands. Biophys J. 2010 Aug 4; 99(3):862-8. PMID: 20682264.
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  37. Li XE, Lehman W, Fischer S. The relationship between curvature, flexibility and persistence length in the tropomyosin coiled-coil. J Struct Biol. 2010 May; 170(2):313-8. PMID: 20117217.
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  38. Galinska A, Hatch V, Craig R, Murphy AM, Van Eyk JE, Wang CL, Lehman W, Foster DB. The C terminus of cardiac troponin I stabilizes the Ca2+-activated state of tropomyosin on actin filaments. Circ Res. 2010 Mar 5; 106(4):705-11. PMID: 20035081.
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  39. Li XE, Lehman W, Fischer S, Holmes KC. Curvature variation along the tropomyosin molecule. J Struct Biol. 2010 May; 170(2):307-12. PMID: 20026408.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Cammarato A, Craig R, Lehman W. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Jan 1; 391(1):193-7. PMID: 19900412.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Li XE, Holmes KC, Lehman W, Jung H, Fischer S. The shape and flexibility of tropomyosin coiled coils: implications for actin filament assembly and regulation. J Mol Biol. 2010 Jan 15; 395(2):327-39. PMID: 19883661.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Lehman W, Galinska-Rakoczy A, Hatch V, Tobacman LS, Craig R. Structural basis for the activation of muscle contraction by troponin and tropomyosin. J Mol Biol. 2009 May 15; 388(4):673-81. PMID: 19341744.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Holmes KC, Lehman W. Gestalt-binding of tropomyosin to actin filaments. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2008; 29(6-8):213-9. PMID: 19116763.
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  44. Galinska-Rakoczy A, Engel P, Xu C, Jung H, Craig R, Tobacman LS, Lehman W. Structural basis for the regulation of muscle contraction by troponin and tropomyosin. J Mol Biol. 2008 Jun 20; 379(5):929-35. PMID: 18514658.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Greenberg MJ, Wang CL, Lehman W, Moore JR. Modulation of actin mechanics by caldesmon and tropomyosin. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008 Feb; 65(2):156-64. PMID: 18000881.
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  46. Lehman W, Craig R. Tropomyosin and the steric mechanism of muscle regulation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008; 644:95-109. PMID: 19209816.
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  47. Maytum R, Hatch V, Konrad M, Lehman W, Geeves MA. Ultra short yeast tropomyosins show novel myosin regulation. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jan 25; 283(4):1902-10. PMID: 18006493.
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  48. Skoumpla K, Coulton AT, Lehman W, Geeves MA, Mulvihill DP. Acetylation regulates tropomyosin function in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Cell Sci. 2007 May 1; 120(Pt 9):1635-45. PMID: 17452625.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Poole KJ, Lorenz M, Evans G, Rosenbaum G, Pirani A, Craig R, Tobacman LS, Lehman W, Holmes KC. A comparison of muscle thin filament models obtained from electron microscopy reconstructions and low-angle X-ray fibre diagrams from non-overlap muscle. J Struct Biol. 2006 Aug; 155(2):273-84. PMID: 16793285.
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  50. Pant K, Chereau D, Hatch V, Dominguez R, Lehman W. Cortactin binding to F-actin revealed by electron microscopy and 3D reconstruction. J Mol Biol. 2006 Jun 16; 359(4):840-7. PMID: 16697006.
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  51. Pirani A, Vinogradova MV, Curmi PM, King WA, Fletterick RJ, Craig R, Tobacman LS, Xu C, Hatch V, Lehman W. An atomic model of the thin filament in the relaxed and Ca2+-activated states. J Mol Biol. 2006 Mar 31; 357(3):707-17. PMID: 16469331.
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  52. Cammarato A, Craig R, Sparrow JC, Lehman W. E93K charge reversal on actin perturbs steric regulation of thin filaments. J Mol Biol. 2005 Apr 15; 347(5):889-94. PMID: 15784249.
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  53. Pirani A, Xu C, Hatch V, Craig R, Tobacman LS, Lehman W. Single particle analysis of relaxed and activated muscle thin filaments. J Mol Biol. 2005 Feb 25; 346(3):761-72. PMID: 15713461.
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  54. Gong H, Hatch V, Ali L, Lehman W, Craig R, Tobacman LS. Mini-thin filaments regulated by troponin-tropomyosin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 18; 102(3):656-61. PMID: 15644437.
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  55. Foster DB, Huang R, Hatch V, Craig R, Graceffa P, Lehman W, Wang CL. Modes of caldesmon binding to actin: sites of caldesmon contact and modulation of interactions by phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 17; 279(51):53387-94. PMID: 15456752.
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  56. Cammarato A, Hatch V, Saide J, Craig R, Sparrow JC, Tobacman LS, Lehman W. Drosophila muscle regulation characterized by electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of thin filament mutants. Biophys J. 2004 Mar; 86(3):1618-24. PMID: 14990488.
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  57. Lehman W, Craig R, Kendrick-Jones J, Sutherland-Smith AJ. An open or closed case for the conformation of calponin homology domains on F-actin? J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2004; 25(4-5):351-8. PMID: 15548864.
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  58. Lehman W, Craig R. The structure of the vertebrate striated muscle thin filament: a tribute to the contributions of Jean Hanson. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2004; 25(6):455-66. PMID: 15630610.
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  59. Sutherland-Smith AJ, Moores CA, Norwood FL, Hatch V, Craig R, Kendrick-Jones J, Lehman W. An atomic model for actin binding by the CH domains and spectrin-repeat modules of utrophin and dystrophin. J Mol Biol. 2003 May 23; 329(1):15-33. PMID: 12742015.
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  60. Tobacman LS, Nihli M, Butters C, Heller M, Hatch V, Craig R, Lehman W, Homsher E. The troponin tail domain promotes a conformational state of the thin filament that suppresses myosin activity. J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 2; 277(31):27636-42. PMID: 12011043.
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  61. Craig R, Lehman W. The ultrastructural basis of actin filament regulation. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2002; 36:149-69. PMID: 11892278.
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  62. Craig R, Lehman W. Crossbridge and tropomyosin positions observed in native, interacting thick and thin filaments. J Mol Biol. 2001 Aug 31; 311(5):1027-36. PMID: 11531337.
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  63. Hatch V, Zhi G, Smith L, Stull JT, Craig R, Lehman W. Myosin light chain kinase binding to a unique site on F-actin revealed by three-dimensional image reconstruction. J Cell Biol. 2001 Aug 6; 154(3):611-7. PMID: 11481347.
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  64. Lehman W, Rosol M, Tobacman LS, Craig R. Troponin organization on relaxed and activated thin filaments revealed by electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction. J Mol Biol. 2001 Mar 30; 307(3):739-44. PMID: 11273697.
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  65. Burhop J, Rosol M, Craig R, Tobacman LS, Lehman W. Effects of a cardiomyopathy-causing troponin t mutation on thin filament function and structure. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 8; 276(23):20788-94. PMID: 11262409.
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  66. Lehman W, Hatch V, Korman V, Rosol M, Thomas L, Maytum R, Geeves MA, Van Eyk JE, Tobacman LS, Craig R. Tropomyosin and actin isoforms modulate the localization of tropomyosin strands on actin filaments. J Mol Biol. 2000 Sep 22; 302(3):593-606. PMID: 10986121.
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  67. Korman VL, Hatch V, Dixon KY, Craig R, Lehman W, Tobacman LS. An actin subdomain 2 mutation that impairs thin filament regulation by troponin and tropomyosin. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jul 21; 275(29):22470-8. PMID: 10801864.
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  68. Rosol M, Lehman W, Craig R, Landis C, Butters C, Tobacman LS. Three-dimensional reconstruction of thin filaments containing mutant tropomyosin. Biophys J. 2000 Feb; 78(2):908-17. PMID: 10653803.
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  69. Xu C, Craig R, Tobacman L, Horowitz R, Lehman W. Tropomyosin positions in regulated thin filaments revealed by cryoelectron microscopy. Biophys J. 1999 Aug; 77(2):985-92. PMID: 10423443.
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  70. Hanein D, Volkmann N, Goldsmith S, Michon AM, Lehman W, Craig R, DeRosier D, Almo S, Matsudaira P. An atomic model of fimbrin binding to F-actin and its implications for filament crosslinking and regulation. Nat Struct Biol. 1998 Sep; 5(9):787-92. PMID: 9731773.
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  71. Lehman W, Vibert P, Craig R. Visualization of caldesmon on smooth muscle thin filaments. J Mol Biol. 1997 Dec 5; 274(3):310-7. PMID: 9405141.
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  72. Hodgkinson JL, el-Mezgueldi M, Craig R, Vibert P, Marston SB, Lehman W. 3-D image reconstruction of reconstituted smooth muscle thin filaments containing calponin: visualization of interactions between F-actin and calponin. J Mol Biol. 1997 Oct 17; 273(1):150-9. PMID: 9367753.
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  73. Hodgkinson JL, Marston SB, Craig R, Vibert P, Lehman W. Three-dimensional image reconstruction of reconstituted smooth muscle thin filaments: effects of caldesmon. Biophys J. 1997 Jun; 72(6):2398-404. PMID: 9168017.
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  74. Vibert P, Craig R, Lehman W. Steric-model for activation of muscle thin filaments. J Mol Biol. 1997 Feb 14; 266(1):8-14. PMID: 9054965.
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  75. Lehman W., R. Craig, & M. Barany . Actin and the Structure of Smooth Muscle Thin Filaments. In Biochemistry of Smooth Muscle Contraction, Barany, M. (editor). Academic Press. San Diego. 1996; 47-60.
  76. Lehman W, Vibert P, Uman P, Craig R. Steric-blocking by tropomyosin visualized in relaxed vertebrate muscle thin filaments. J Mol Biol. 1995 Aug 11; 251(2):191-6. PMID: 7643394.
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  77. Lehman W, Craig R, Vibert P. Ca(2+)-induced tropomyosin movement in Limulus thin filaments revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction. Nature. 1994 Mar 3; 368(6466):65-7. PMID: 8107884.
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  78. Lehman W, Denault D, Marston S. The caldesmon content of vertebrate smooth muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Nov 10; 1203(1):53-9. PMID: 8218392.
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  79. Vibert P, Craig R, Lehman W. Three-dimensional reconstruction of caldesmon-containing smooth muscle thin filaments. J Cell Biol. 1993 Oct; 123(2):313-21. PMID: 8408215.
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  80. Graceffa P, Adam LP, Lehman W. Disulphide cross-linking of smooth-muscle and non-muscle caldesmon to the C-terminus of actin in reconstituted and native thin filaments. Biochem J. 1993 Aug 15; 294 ( Pt 1):63-7. PMID: 8363587.
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  81. Lehman W, Denault D, Marston S. Novel immunological technique. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 1992 Oct; 13(5):582-5. PMID: 1460085.
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  82. Lehman W. Calponin and the composition of smooth muscle thin filaments. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 1991 Jun; 12(3):221-4. PMID: 1874963.
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  83. Moody C, Lehman W, Craig R. Caldesmon and the structure of smooth muscle thin filaments: electron microscopy of isolated thin filaments. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 1990 Apr; 11(2):176-85. PMID: 2351755.
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  84. Lehman W, Moody C, Craig R. Caldesmon and the structure of vertebrate smooth muscle thin filaments. A minireview. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990; 599:75-84. PMID: 2221678.
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  85. Babu A, Lehman W, Gulati J. Characterization of the Ca2+-switch in skeletal and cardiac muscles. FEBS Lett. 1989 Jul 17; 251(1-2):177-82. PMID: 2753157.
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  86. Lehman W. 35 kDa proteins are not components of vertebrate smooth muscle thin filaments. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989 Jun 13; 996(1-2):57-61. PMID: 2736259.
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  87. Lehman W, Craig R, Lui J, Moody C. Caldesmon and the structure of smooth muscle thin filaments: immunolocalization of caldesmon on thin filaments. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 1989 Apr; 10(2):101-12. PMID: 2760189.
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  88. Marston SB, Redwood CS, Lehman W. Reversal of caldesmon function by anti-caldesmon antibodies confirms its role in the calcium regulation of vascular smooth muscle thin filaments. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Aug 30; 155(1):197-202. PMID: 2970847.
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  89. Lehman W, Sheldon A, Madonia W. Diversity in smooth muscle thin filament composition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987 Jul 24; 914(1):35-9. PMID: 3607060.
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  90. Lehman W. The effect of calcium on the aggregation of chicken gizzard thin filaments. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 1986 Dec; 7(6):537-49. PMID: 3100573.
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  91. Lehman W. Caldesmon association with smooth muscle thin filaments isolated in the presence and absence of calcium. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986 Jan 23; 885(1):88-90. PMID: 3942796.
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  92. Marston SB, Lehman W. Caldesmon is a Ca2+-regulatory component of native smooth-muscle thin filaments. Biochem J. 1985 Nov 1; 231(3):517-22. PMID: 2934055.
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  93. Shima Y, Tsuchiya T, Lehman W, Matsumoto JJ. The characterization of invertebrate troponin C. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1984; 79(4):525-9. PMID: 6518756.
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  94. Lehman W. The distribution of troponin-like proteins on thin filaments of the bay scallop, aequipecten irradians. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 1983 Jun; 4(3):379-89. PMID: 6348084.
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  95. Lehman W. The ionic requirements for regulation by molluscan thin filaments. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1983 May 30; 745(1):1-5. PMID: 6221762.
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  96. Lehman W. The location and periodicity of a troponin-T-like protein in the myofibril of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. J Mol Biol. 1982 Jan 15; 154(2):385-91. PMID: 6804635.
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  97. Lehman W. Thin-filament-linked regulation in molluscan muscles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981 May 29; 668(3):349-56. PMID: 6453619.
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  98. Lehman W, Ferrell M. Phylogenetic diversity of troponin subunit-C amino acid composition. FEBS Lett. 1980 Dec 1; 121(2):273-4. PMID: 7461130.
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  99. Lehman W, Head JF, Grant PW. The stoichiometry and location of troponin I- and troponin C-like proteins in the myofibril of the bay scallop, Aequipecten irradians. Biochem J. 1980 May 1; 187(2):447-56. PMID: 6249269.
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  100. Lehman W. Thick-filament-linked calcium regulation in vertebrate striated muscle. Nature. 1978 Jul 6; 274(5666):80-1. PMID: 149254.
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  101. Goldberg A, Lehman W. Troponin-like proteins from muscles of the scallop, Aequipecten irradians. Biochem J. 1978 May 1; 171(2):413-8. PMID: 148888.
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  102. Lehman W. Calcium ion-dependent myosin from decapod-crustacean muscles. Biochem J. 1977 May 1; 163(2):291-6. PMID: 141278.
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  103. Lehman W. Insect Flight Muscle: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium. The dual system of calcium-activation in arthropod muscles. North Holland. Amsterdam. 1977; 277-283.
  104. Lehman W, Regenstein JM, Ransom AL. The stoichiometry of the components of arthropod thin filaments. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 May 20; 434(1):215-22. PMID: 938665.
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  105. Lehman W. Phylogenetic diversity of the proteins regulating muscular contraction. Int Rev Cytol. 1976; 44:55-92. PMID: 131113.
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  106. Lehman W. Cell Motility, Book A, Motility, Muscle, and Non-muscle Cells. Calcium regulation in invertebrate muscles. Cold Spring Harbor Press. Woodbury, NY. 1976; 3A:277-283.
  107. Fine R, Lehman W, Head J, Blitz A. Troponin C in brain. Nature. 1975 Nov 20; 258(5532):260-7. PMID: 1202358.
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  108. Lehman W, Szent-Györgyi AG. Regulation of muscular contraction. Distribution of actin control and myosin control in the animal kingdom. J Gen Physiol. 1975 Jul; 66(1):1-30. PMID: 125778.
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  109. Lehman W. Hybrid troponin reconstituted from vertebrate and arthropod subunits. Nature. 1975 May 29; 255(5507):424-6. PMID: 124018.
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  110. Marston S, Lehman W. ADP binding to relaxed scallop myofibrils. Nature. 1974 Nov 1; 252(5478):38-9. PMID: 4279338.
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  111. Lehman W, Bullard B, Hammond K. Calcium-dependent myosin from insect flight muscles. J Gen Physiol. 1974 May; 63(5):553-63. PMID: 4274833.
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  112. Lehman W., J. Kendrick Jones, & A.G. Szent Györgyi . Cold Spring Harbor Symposium: The Mechanism of Muscle Contraction. Myosin linked Regulatory Systems: Comparative Aspects. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Woodbury, NY. 1973; 37:319-330.
  113. Lehman W, Szent-Györgyi G. Activation of the adenosine triphosphatase of Limulus polyphemus actomyosin by tropomyosin. J Gen Physiol. 1972 Apr; 59(4):375-87. PMID: 4260494.
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  114. Lehman WJ, Rebhun LI. The structural elements responsible for contraction in the ciliate Spirostomum. Protoplasma. 1971; 72(2):153-78. PMID: 5555985.
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  115. Kendrick-Jones J, Lehman W, Szent-Györgyi AG. Regulation in molluscan muscles. J Mol Biol. 1970 Dec 14; 54(2):313-26. PMID: 4250215.
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