Keywords
Last Name

Andrew Taylor, PhD

TitleAssociate Dean for Research
InstitutionBoston University School of Medicine
Address72 E. Concord St Instructional (L)
Boston MA 02118
Phone(617) 638-4525
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-0330-8591
Other Positions
TitleProfessor
InstitutionBoston University School of Medicine
DepartmentOphthalmology

 Awards and Honors

Start-EndDescription
2014-2018NIH: DPVS Study Section Member
2015Association for Research In Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO): Gold Fellow, an honor to recognize individual members accomplishments, and leadership
 Research Expertise & Professional Interests
A large part of our research effort has been to characterize the immunosuppressive and immunoregulating factors within immune privilege tissues. Through immunochemical and biological analysis of aqueous humor, the fluid filling the anterior chamber of the eye, we have identified several potent immunoregulating and immunosuppressing neuropeptides that 1) suppress the activation of effector Th1 cells, 2) suppress the activation and the inflammatory activity of macrophages, and 3) mediate the induction of antigen-specific regulatory T cells.

Our research has found constitutively present neuropeptides in the immune privileged eye, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH), vasoactive intestinal peptide, calcitonin gene related peptide, and somatostatin. Collectively, the neuropeptides in aqueous humor suppress activation of delayed type hypersensitivity of adaptive immunity, and endotoxin activation of macrophages in innate immunity. Individually, the neuropeptides target different cells and stages in the induction of an immune response. Also we have preliminary data suggesting a role for the ocular neuropeptides in the regulation of macrophage functionality in the immune privileged eye.

We are finding that within the ocular microenvironment the activation of macrophages to pathogens does not promote inflammation, but promotes suppressor functionality in the macrophages. These macrophages respond to pathogens without mediating inflammation, or activating T cells. Moreover, the macrophages produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, suppress and possibly induce apoptosis in activated T cells, and produce enzymes associated with wound repair. We have preliminary evidence that this is mediated by neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system, norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y along with a-MSH and somatostatin.

As we continue to examine the mechanisms of ocular immune privilege we further promote the importance of the interactions between the nervous and the immune systems and how we can use these interactions to beneficially manipulate immunity.

 Self-Described Keywords
  • Animal models
  • Antibodies
  • Aqueous Humor
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Cellular Immunity
  • ELISA
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gene therapy
  • Immune cell activation and culturing
  • Immune System
  • Immune tolerance
  • Immunoblotting
  • Immunology
  • Innate Immunity
  • Intraocular Injections
  • Lymphocytes
  • Macrophages
  • Melanocortins
  • Melanocortin Receptors
  • Microglia
  • Mononuclear Phagocyte System
  • Neuroimmunology
  • Neuroimmunomodulation
  • Neuropeptides
  • Ocular Fluid Collection
  • Uveitis
  • Vision Science
 Publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
List All   |   Timeline
  1. Wang E, Choe Y, Ng TF, Taylor AW. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Suppress Phagolysosome Activation in Macrophages. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 Feb 01; 58(2):1266-1273. PMID: 28241314.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Lee DJ, Preble J, Lee S, Foster CS, Taylor AW. MC5r and A2Ar Deficiencies During Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis Identifies Distinct T cell Polarization Programs and a Biphasic Regulatory Response. Sci Rep. 2016 Nov 25; 6:37790. PMID: 27886238.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Taylor AW. Ocular Immune Privilege and Transplantation. Front Immunol. 2016; 7:37. PMID: 26904026.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Clemson CM, Yost J, Taylor AW. The Role of Alpha-MSH as a Modulator of Ocular Immunobiology Exemplifies Mechanistic Differences between Melanocortins and Steroids. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2016 Jan 25; 1-11. PMID: 26807874.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Lee DJ, Taylor AW. Recovery from experimental autoimmune uveitis promotes induction of antiuveitic inducible Tregs. J Leukoc Biol. 2015 Jun; 97(6):1101-9. PMID: 25877928.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Taylor AW, Dixit S, Yu J. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Line Suppression of Phagolysosome Activation. Int J Ophthalmol Eye Sci. 2015 Jan 29; Suppl 2(1):1-6. PMID: 25905107.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Bennett JL, Nickerson M, Costello F, Sergott RC, Calkwood JC, Galetta SL, Balcer LJ, Markowitz CE, Vartanian T, Morrow M, Moster ML, Taylor AW, Pace TW, Frohman T, Frohman EM. Re-evaluating the treatment of acute optic neuritis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015 Jul; 86(7):799-808. PMID: 25355373.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Ma J, Mehta M, Lam G, Cyr D, Ng TF, Hirose T, Tawansy KA, Taylor AW, Lashkari K. Influence of subretinal fluid in advanced stage retinopathy of prematurity on proangiogenic response and cell proliferation. Mol Vis. 2014; 20:881-93. PMID: 24966660.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Hsu SM, Mathew R, Taylor AW, Stein-Streilein J. Ex-vivo tolerogenic F4/80? antigen-presenting cells (APC) induce efferent CD8? regulatory T cell-dependent suppression of experimental autoimmune uveitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2014 Apr; 176(1):37-48. PMID: 24266626.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Lee DJ, Taylor AW. Both MC5r and A2Ar are required for protective regulatory immunity in the spleen of post-experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice. J Immunol. 2013 Oct 15; 191(8):4103-11. PMID: 24043903.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Taylor AW. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH) is a post-caspase suppressor of apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e74488. PMID: 24009773.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Phan TA, Taylor AW. The neuropeptides a-MSH and NPY modulate phagocytosis and phagolysosome activation in RAW 264.7 cells. J Neuroimmunol. 2013 Jul 15; 260(1-2):9-16. PMID: 23689030.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Taylor AW. Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Transforming Growth Factor-ß Pathway-Mediated Disease. Am J Pathol. 2012 Jun; 180(6):2201-4. PMID: 22525463.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Lee DJ, Taylor AW. Following EAU recovery there is an associated MC5r-dependent APC induction of regulatory immunity in the spleen. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011; 52(12):8862-7. PMID: 21989727.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Taylor AW, Lee DJ. The alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone induces conversion of effector T cells into treg cells. J Transplant. 2011; 2011:246856. PMID: 21941624.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Taylor AW, Kaplan HJ. Ocular immune privilege in the year 2010: ocular immune privilege and uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2010 Dec; 18(6):488-92. PMID: 21091058.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Kawanaka N, Taylor AW. Localized retinal neuropeptide regulation of macrophage and microglial cell functionality. J Neuroimmunol. 2011 Mar; 232(1-2):17-25. PMID: 20965575.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Ly LV, Bronkhorst IH, van Beelen E, Vrolijk J, Taylor AW, Versluis M, Luyten GP, Jager MJ. Inflammatory cytokines in eyes with uveal melanoma and relation with macrophage infiltration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Nov; 51(11):5445-51. PMID: 20538984.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Taylor AW, Lee D. Applications of the role of a-MSH in ocular immune privilege. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010; 681:143-9. PMID: 21222267.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Lau CH, Taylor AW. The immune privileged retina mediates an alternative activation of J774A.1 cells. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2009 Nov-Dec; 17(6):380-9. PMID: 20001256.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Hamrah P, Haskova Z, Taylor AW, Zhang Q, Ksander BR, Dana MR. Local treatment with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone reduces corneal allorejection. Transplantation. 2009 Jul 27; 88(2):180-7. PMID: 19623012.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Lee DJ, Biros DJ, Taylor AW. Injection of an alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone expression plasmid is effective in suppressing experimental autoimmune uveitis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009 Aug; 9(9):1079-86. PMID: 19426838.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Taylor AW. Ocular immune privilege. Eye (Lond). 2009 Oct; 23(10):1885-9. PMID: 19136922.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Taylor AW. Review of the activation of TGF-beta in immunity. J Leukoc Biol. 2009 Jan; 85(1):29-33. PMID: 18818372.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Li D, Taylor AW. Diminishment of alpha-MSH anti-inflammatory activity in MC1r siRNA-transfected RAW264.7 macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2008 Jul; 84(1):191-8. PMID: 18388300.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Taylor AW, Kitaichi N. The diminishment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) therapy. Brain Behav Immun. 2008 Jul; 22(5):639-46. PMID: 18171609.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Ng TF, Kitaichi N, Taylor AW. In vitro generated autoimmune regulatory T cells enhance intravitreous allogeneic retinal graft survival. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Nov; 48(11):5112-7. PMID: 17962463.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Shen L, Barabino S, Taylor AW, Dana MR. Effect of the ocular microenvironment in regulating corneal dendritic cell maturation. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 Jul; 125(7):908-15. PMID: 17620569.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Ng TF, Lavik E, Keino H, Taylor AW, Langer RS, Young MJ. Creating an immune-privileged site using retinal progenitor cells and biodegradable polymers. Stem Cells. 2007 Jun; 25(6):1552-9. PMID: 17548532.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Taylor AW, Alard P, Yee DG, Streilein JW. Aqueous humor induces transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-producing regulatory T-cells. 1997. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007 May-Jun; 15(3):215-24. PMID: 17613836.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Zamiri P, Masli S, Kitaichi N, Taylor AW, Streilein JW. Thrombospondin plays a vital role in the immune privilege of the eye. 2005. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007 May-Jun; 15(3):279-94. PMID: 17613842.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Taylor AW. Ocular immunosuppressive microenvironment. Chem Immunol Allergy. 2007; 92:71-85. PMID: 17264484.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Stein-Streilein J, Taylor AW. An eye's view of T regulatory cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2007 Mar; 81(3):593-8. PMID: 17194735.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Zamiri P, Masli S, Streilein JW, Taylor AW. Pigment epithelial growth factor suppresses inflammation by modulating macrophage activation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Sep; 47(9):3912-8. PMID: 16936104.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Biros DJ, Namba K, Taylor AW. Alpha-MSH regulates protein ubiquitination in T cells. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2006; 52(2):33-8. PMID: 16914084.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Taylor AW, Kitaichi N, Biros D. Melanocortin 5 receptor and ocular immunity. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2006; 52(2):53-9. PMID: 16914087.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Taylor AW. The immunomodulating neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) suppresses LPS-stimulated TLR4 with IRAK-M in macrophages. J Neuroimmunol. 2005 May; 162(1-2):43-50. PMID: 15833358.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Zamiri P, Masli S, Kitaichi N, Taylor AW, Streilein JW. Thrombospondin plays a vital role in the immune privilege of the eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Mar; 46(3):908-19. PMID: 15728547.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Kitaichi N, Namba K, Taylor AW. Inducible immune regulation following autoimmune disease in the immune-privileged eye. J Leukoc Biol. 2005 Apr; 77(4):496-502. PMID: 15647326.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Nishida T, Miyata S, Itoh Y, Mizuki N, Ohgami K, Shiratori K, Ilieva IB, Ohno S, Taylor AW. Anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone against rat endotoxin-induced uveitis and the time course of inflammatory agents in aqueous humor. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Aug; 4(8):1059-66. PMID: 15222980.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Taylor AW, Yee DG. Somatostatin is an immunosuppressive factor in aqueous humor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Jun; 44(6):2644-9. PMID: 12766068.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Taylor AW. Modulation of regulatory T cell immunity by the neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2003 Mar; 49(2):143-9. PMID: 12887097.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Kitaichi N, Kotake S, Morohashi T, Onoé K, Ohno S, Taylor AW. Diminution of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) in mice depleted of NK cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2002 Dec; 72(6):1117-21. PMID: 12488492.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Namba K, Kitaichi N, Nishida T, Taylor AW. Induction of regulatory T cells by the immunomodulating cytokines alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and transforming growth factor-beta2. J Leukoc Biol. 2002 Nov; 72(5):946-52. PMID: 12429716.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Streilein JW, Ohta K, Mo JS, Taylor AW. Ocular immune privilege and the impact of intraocular inflammation. DNA Cell Biol. 2002 May-Jun; 21(5-6):453-9. PMID: 12167248.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Liu Y, Hamrah P, Zhang Q, Taylor AW, Dana MR. Draining lymph nodes of corneal transplant hosts exhibit evidence for donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-positive dendritic cells derived from MHC class II-negative grafts. J Exp Med. 2002 Jan 21; 195(2):259-68. PMID: 11805152.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Taylor AW. Neuroimmunomodulation and immune privilege: the role of neuropeptides in ocular immunosuppression. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2002-2003; 10(4):189-98. PMID: 12584406.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Liu Y, Dana MR, Tewari V, Taylor AW. Immune response to intragraft antigen in draining lymph nodes after corneal transplantation is mediated by interleukin-12. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2001 Oct; 21(10):813-9. PMID: 11710993.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Ohta K, Yamagami S, Taylor AW, Streilein JW. IL-6 antagonizes TGF-beta and abolishes immune privilege in eyes with endotoxin-induced uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Aug; 41(9):2591-9. PMID: 10937571.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Ohta K, Wiggert B, Yamagami S, Taylor AW, Streilein JW. Analysis of immunomodulatory activities of aqueous humor from eyes of mice with experimental autoimmune uveitis. J Immunol. 2000 Feb 1; 164(3):1185-92. PMID: 10640729.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Streilein JW, Okamoto S, Sano Y, Taylor AW. Neural control of ocular immune privilege. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000; 917:297-306. PMID: 11268357.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Taylor AW, Yee DG, Nishida T, Namba K. Neuropeptide regulation of immunity. The immunosuppressive activity of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000; 917:239-47. PMID: 11268350.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Nishida T, Taylor AW. Specific aqueous humor factors induce activation of regulatory T cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Sep; 40(10):2268-74. PMID: 10476792.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Ohta K, Wiggert B, Taylor AW, Streilein JW. Effects of experimental ocular inflammation on ocular immune privilege. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Aug; 40(9):2010-8. PMID: 10440255.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Yamada J, Yoshida M, Taylor AW, Streilein JW. Mice with Th2-biased immune systems accept orthotopic corneal allografts placed in "high risk" eyes. J Immunol. 1999 May 1; 162(9):5247-55. PMID: 10227999.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Taylor AW. Ocular immunosuppressive microenvironment. Chem Immunol. 1999; 73:72-89. PMID: 10590575.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Taylor AW, Yee DG, Streilein JW. Suppression of nitric oxide generated by inflammatory macrophages by calcitonin gene-related peptide in aqueous humor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Jul; 39(8):1372-8. PMID: 9660485.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Goslings WR, Prodeus AP, Streilein JW, Carroll MC, Jager MJ, Taylor AW. A small molecular weight factor in aqueous humor acts on C1q to prevent antibody-dependent complement activation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 May; 39(6):989-95. PMID: 9579478.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Taylor AW, Alard P, Yee DG, Streilein JW. Aqueous humor induces transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-producing regulatory T-cells. Curr Eye Res. 1997 Sep; 16(9):900-8. PMID: 9288451.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Streilein JW, Ksander BR, Taylor AW. Immune deviation in relation to ocular immune privilege. J Immunol. 1997 Apr 15; 158(8):3557-60. PMID: 9103414.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Streilein JW, Takeuchi M, Taylor AW. Immune privilege, T-cell tolerance, and tissue-restricted autoimmunity. Hum Immunol. 1997 Feb; 52(2):138-43. PMID: 9077562.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Taylor AW. Neuroimmunomodulation in immune privilege: role of neuropeptides in ocular immunosuppression. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1996 Jul-Aug; 3(4):195-204. PMID: 9094440.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Taylor AW, Streilein JW. Inhibition of antigen-stimulated effector T cells by human cerebrospinal fluid. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1996 Mar-Jun; 3(2-3):112-8. PMID: 8945726.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Cagliero E, Roth T, Taylor AW, Lorenzi M. The effects of high glucose on human endothelial cell growth and gene expression are not mediated by transforming growth factor-beta. Lab Invest. 1995 Nov; 73(5):667-73. PMID: 7474940.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Taylor AW, Streilein JW, Cousins SW. Immunoreactive vasoactive intestinal peptide contributes to the immunosuppressive activity of normal aqueous humor. J Immunol. 1994 Aug 1; 153(3):1080-6. PMID: 8027541.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Taylor AW, Streilein JW, Cousins SW. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone suppresses antigen-stimulated T cell production of gamma-interferon. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1994 May-Jun; 1(3):188-94. PMID: 7489333.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Taylor AW, Streilein JW, Cousins SW. Identification of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone as a potential immunosuppressive factor in aqueous humor. Curr Eye Res. 1992 Dec; 11(12):1199-206. PMID: 1490338.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Streilein JW, Wilbanks GA, Taylor A, Cousins S. Eye-derived cytokines and the immunosuppressive intraocular microenvironment: a review. Curr Eye Res. 1992; 11 Suppl:41-7. PMID: 1424750.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Taylor AW, Mortensen RF. Effect of alpha-2-macroglobulin on cytokine-mediated human C-reactive protein production. Inflammation. 1991 Feb; 15(1):61-70. PMID: 1711512.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Taylor AW, Ku NO, Mortensen RF. Regulation of cytokine-induced human C-reactive protein production by transforming growth factor-beta. J Immunol. 1990 Oct 15; 145(8):2507-13. PMID: 2170518.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Jones LR, Taylor AW, Hines HC. Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven. J Dairy Sci. 1987 Sep; 70(9):1941-5. PMID: 3668051.
    View in: PubMed
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